Sunday, March 31, 2019
Overview of Disease Diagnoses Processes
Overview of Disease Diagnoses ProcessesAlejandra MedinillaTASK 1The armorial bearing of this work is to cover the whole process of affection diagnoses. In medicine, live diametrical ways to disunite illnesss as comfortably as un wish well test and procedures to diagnose them. The world wellness organization (WHO) plays a precise key role here since they created normalized mixtures of diseases and disabilities, with circumstantial codes to describe each of them with the intent of simplify and standardize the process of diagnose 1.2. We be outlet to check the two well-nigh important models of wellness, apply in medicine to exc use of goods and services infirmity. They help to predict and identify risks and consequences, capture decisions and reduce the possibility of occurrent of an illness.Diseases base be classified in different ways, depending on the criteria interpreted into account duration, distri saveion, pathology and aetiology are some examples. They are important in the compilation of statistics on causes of illness (morbidity) and causes of death (mortality).The just about apply salmagundis split illnesses depending on the organs affected, nature and causes of the disease, risk of contagious and communicable and the event and frequency of it. According to the British encyclopedia these classifications are 1) topographic, (2) anatomic (3) physiological, (4) diseased (5) etiologic (6) juristic, (7) epidemiological and (8) statistical. (Stanley L. Robbins, Jonathan H. Robbins, Dante G. Scarpelli. 2013. Classifications of diseases online. Available at http//www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/275628/ gentleman-disease/63272/Classifications-of-diseases)The WHO has a genuinely important role in classifying disease. They stupefy the WHO Family of internationalist Classifications (WHO-FIC), with the ICD and ICF as heart and soul classifications.They are call the Normalized Classifications and are based on professional and scie ntific criteria.The International Classification of Diseases (ICD) is a classification that uses different codes to differentiate signals, signs and illnesses. This classification al low-toneded a global standardization making easier the diagnostic process. Each illness is classifying trough a code of 5 characters.The last version is the tenth, ICD-10, created in 1992. The 11th revision is running until 2015.The another(prenominal) classification created by the WHO is the ICF, which complements the ICD. This classification has two parts. One refers to functionality and dis mogul and the other to conceptual factors.Both classify of the different states of illness/wellness within a standardize framework, with specific codes.On the other hand, much habitually speaking, in 1997 was created the triangle of health. It classifies health, into social, mental or somatogenetic making emphasis on the immensity of the three states together.We do-nothing define as Physical wellness, to the ashes health it refers to optimal weigh, vision, a healthy skin, and beads, tissues and organs, a good dental train and a good neuro-muscular coordination. A person with corporeal health must(prenominal) able to do all his routine workwithout any touchyy. To evaluate the physical health of a person we bum focus in different areas like life style (drug abuse, alcohol and tabaco habits, rule-governed exercise, medical checkups), human biology (genetic and body chemistry), environment (the air we breathe and where we live) and medical operate ( to prevent, detect and treat diseases). rational health refers to the state of mind. It is the capability that a person has to manage stress and tension of daily life and keep up a good attitude. Personal relationships with family and friends are a key flavour when trying to evaluate a persons mental health. Mental health is essential requirement to make judgments, to possess discretion and to formula and overcome the probl ems.The worldly concern wellness Organization describes Mental wellness as the state of well- world in which the individual realizes his or her own abilities, tramp cope with the normal stresses of life, can work productively and fruitfully, and is able to make a contribution to his or her community. (WHO. December 2013. Mental health a state of well-being online. Available at http//www.who.int/features/factfiles/mental_health/en/)And last, Social Health which is the ability to function in society. It is in the ability to build un occasional and constructive relationships with peers. The social network of a person is a pivotal indicator. Having no friends could lead to depression being more prone to pellucid physical problems. In contrast, a person with strong relationships will step more supported and accompanied.As a resume, a person could birth a very good physical health, making exercises every day, slang in healthy food and doing regular checkups with the doctor, but, if the person moves away from friends and social events to economise this condition, this means luck of social health and could lead him to mental health problems in the future.In the process of diagnoses and establishing health and disease it is important to live with knowledge and at a lower placestanding of the Health interrogation methods.Health look into has been define as the process for obtaining systematic knowledge and technology which can be used for the improvement of the health of individual groups. (Davies 1991, cited in A. Bowling 2002, p.3)Health investigate methods are used to obtain the necessary information to develop new tools and procedures that help to protect flock from diseases or recover from them.Classifications of question methods are based on different criteria. Dankhe classification (1989) proposed 4 types of research studies exploratory, descriptive, correlational and explanatory.In general depending on the role of the researcher we can have ob servational or experimental methods according to the time when the selective information is collected or measured, prospective or retrospective according to the do of occasions on which the variable is measured in the study, transversal or longitudinal and according to the number of variables under study, descriptive or analytic. experimental studies are prospective studies they evaluate the effect of one or more interventions. Frequently used in the assessment of therapeutic drugs and therapeutic interventions, being really careful with the ethic limits. They can be applied to the probe of preventive measures of the disease, seeking to reduce individual risk. An example is the study that evaluates the posture of a vaccine. On the other hand observational studies are those in which the tolerant is not assigned to an specific treatment or intervention, the rating is carried out according to a standard clinical practice, being therefore the researcher an observer of what is happ ening or has happened.Research involves a cabal between the different types of research. Research methods are used in conjunction.As the WHO suggest another way of classifying health research is to describe it under three operational interlinked categories of biomedical, health services and behavioral research, the so-called health research triangle (WHO. 2001. Health research methodology. Chapter 1, p. 3)Multi-dimensional approaches are available for evaluating outcomes research. In evaluating research outcomes it is important to measure effectiveness, acceptability and humanity, equity and accessibility and efficiency.The paygrade of the data is made using the scientific method, and the collection of research data. rating can be divided into two types formative and summative.Formative paygrade is carried out during the investigation process. It aims to improve the methodology concentrating on the strengths and weaknesses.On the other hand, Summative evaluation takes place at t he end of the process. It determines achievement and other outcomes, to evaluate the continuity or not of the process or program.thither are different ways to disseminate the results of a research. As a general rule it is better to plan at the beginning of the research which is going to be the dissemination strategies. It should be consider the goals and objectives of the dissemination, as well as the impact, the Audience, the Medium to best reach each the audience and the public presentation process.Ones we have the results of an investigation we need to concentrate in how they are going to be disclosed. The options are diverse, depending on the public we penury to focus on.The more or less ballpark and generally used is the publication of texts, could as scientific papers, in specialize magazines, newspapers or posters, leaflets and advertising for a more general public.In the field of health exist different Principles of Health modeling. Models are a simplification of reality . They help to predict, identify risks and consequences, make decisions and reduce the burden of illness.We can course credit 2 important models, the Biomedical and the Biopsychosocial models. Both are theories that justify illness from different perspectives.The biomedical model assumes that disease is a recreation from normal biological functioning and biological mechanisms are sufficient to beg off disease, excluding psychological and social processes. It is a reductionist and single-factor model it reduces illness to low processes, such as disordered cells and chemical imbalances, and explains illness in term of a biological malfunction.We can say that the Body was treated as a machine Physical disease is measured by the absence seizure of health. It is the one used to develop the classification of diseases.On the other hand, the holistic or biopsychosocial model includes biological, psychological, and social factors as important determinants of health and illness.It maint ains that health and illness are caused by multiple factors and produce multiple effects. So it is a multicausal model. Mind and body cannot be distinguished in matters of health and illness because both mould the state of health.The perception of wellbeing is see by different factors. There are psychological and social factors that influence the development of illness, and these are ignored by the biomedical model since it take into account just the physical aspects of the problem.TASK 2It is important to mention the difference between Diseases and indispositiones. A disease is a pathological condition of the body in response to disruption of homeostasis. It is a result of pathogens, trauma, physical and chemical agents, genetics (inheritance), metabolic or nutritional disorders, while an Illness is the condition of a person experiencing disease.In order to establish peoples health we need to follow different procedures and make various tests to be able to give diagnoses. Before we can glide by with a specific test or group of tests we need to look the Signs and omens the patient presents.Signs can be define as any indication of a medical condition that can be objectively observed and unremarkably they have no meaning to the patient or they not even notice them. Signs can be detected during a physical examination. steep blood pressure is an example. 2.2Symptoms on the other hand are recognized, go through and referred by the patients. The patient feels something anomalous in his body. Examples of symptoms can be, feeling tired, low mood and energy, anxiety, nausea, dizziness, and drowsiness. Symptoms become key elements when any health professional want to make a diagnosis to a patient and give him treatment.As examples to crystalize we can mention three examples. In the case of a headache, the patient is the only one capable to notice it so, it is a symptom if we talk about blood pressure, this could only be a signs, since it demand to be measured by a doctor in a laboratory and the one that could be both, a sign and a symptom is a rush.Ones we have observe and checked the signs and symptoms we are able to proceed with the correspondent diagnostic process.The diagnostic process includes all types of measurements and tests that are used to evaluate a patients condition, such as physiological measurements, laboratory tests and pathology tests, visualise tests and endoscopies. 2.1Each form of diagnosis involves specific procedures and tests that we can summarize asLaboratory tests blood test, urine, and/or other body fluids. They are used to evaluate what is going on in the body and also in specific cases like cancer treatment, to evaluate the side effects like anaemia and neutropenia (low white blood cell count), which can increase the risk of infection. 2.1Endoscopic tests is a procedure performed with an endoscope (a flexible and very thin tobacco pipe with a camera) to examine the inside of the body. The endoscope model va ries depending on the part of the body that is going to be examined.Biopsy is the removal of tissue, a very small hail to be examined under a microscope. There are different types of biopsies beauteous needle aspiration biopsy, Core needle biopsy, Vacuum-assisted biopsy, Image-guided biopsy and surgical biopsy. 2.1Imaging tests X-ray, bone scan, CT or CAT scan, Positron emission tomography (PET) scan, magnetic resonance imaging and Ultrasound. 2.1In practice, Multiple Tests are used. Choices depend on cost, invasiveness, volume of test, front man and capability of lab infrastructure, urgency, etc.As an example, to diagnose cancer the most common types of tests used are biopsy, imaging tests, endoscopic tests and laboratory tests.It is important to know that a disease could be developed in a normal or an abnormal way. That is the field of etiology, which in medicine refers to the factors approach together to cause a disease.As mention previously, a disease can have a normal or an abnormal aetiology. To clarify this concept we can observe the development of Diabetes. In general it could be describe as a chronic disease that occurs when the body loses the ability to produce enough insulin or use it effectively.We can divide this disease in 2 main groups. The start-off one includes the types of diabetes with normal aetiology and the second one with abnormal aetiology.In the 1st group (normal aetiology), the common forms of diabetes are fictitious character 1 diabetes (T1D, known as insulin-dependent diabetes or IDDM) and Type 2 diabetes.In Type 1, the pancreatic cells produce little or no insulin. Its causes are not precisely known but are believed to be an autoimmune reaction. It can occur at any age, but usually occurs before the age of 30.Type 2 diabetes (T2D), known as non-insulin-dependent diabetes (NIDDM) usually develops slowly over time. Most people with this disease are overweight at the time of diagnosis. The increment of body fat makes it difficul t for the body to use insulin the right way. It can also occur in thin people and are more common in the elderly. It is the most common form of diabetes. 2.3The 2nd group involves the types of diabetes with abnormal aetiology. In general these types present a gene mutation and some grade of inheritance. We can mention MODY (Maturity onset diabetes of the young) and GDM (Gestational diabetes).(MODY) is a rare form of diabetes that runs strongly in families. It is caused by an inherited genetic defect, an autosomal inheritance (3 generations of the same family affected) of the insulin-producing cells. aft(prenominal) the Type 1 diabetes it is the most frequency type within infants.GDM is first developed during pregnancy, usually appears in mid-pregnancy. The body cannot produce or use enough insulin. It is of very high risk for the pregnancy, so it needs to be controlled. Gestational diabetes can be controlled with a healthy diet and regular exercise, but sometimes the mother will al so need insulin. unremarkably it disappears after delivery, but the mother has more risks of developing diabetes type 2 in the future.BIBLIOGRAPHYBowling, Ann. Research methods in health investigating health and health services 2nd ed. Open University Press, Buckingham Philadelphia.David Blane, Mel Bartley, George Davey Smith Disease aetiology and materialist explanations of socioeconomic mortality differentials Inequities in health European Journal of Public Health. 1997 7 3S5-391D. A. Collier and J. L. Treasure, The aetiology of eating disorders. British Journal of Psychiatry (2004), 185, 363-365Donald M. Steinwachs, Ronda G. Hughes, Chapter 8. Health Services Research Scope and Significance. Patient Safety and Quality An Evidence-Based handbook for Nurses Vol. 1Institute of Alcohol Studies (2007) Alcohol and Mental Health.L Rychetnik, M Frommer, P Hawe, A Shiell, Criteria for evaluating evidence on public health interventions. J Epidemiol Community Health 2002 56119127Ross an d Wilson (2006), Anatomy and Physiology in health and illness, 10th edition Elsevier.R Bonita, R Beaglehole, T Kjellstrm, Basic epidemiology, WHO, 2nd edition.Saffrey and Stewart (eds) (2001) Maintaining The unharmed benevolent Biology and Health Book 3, The Open University, Chapter 7.The World health organization (2001) Mental health new understanding, new hope.Tortora (2003) Introduction to the Human Body The essentials of Anatomy and Physiology, 4th Edition, Wiley Sons.Hawkes, C. (2002) Globalization, Diets and Noncommunicable Diseases, World Health Organization.WHO, Health Research Methodology A guide for training in research methods. Second Edition. WHO, Regional Office for the Western Pacific, Manila, 2001.World Health Organization, 2001. ICF International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health. WHO, Geneve.WHO (1993) The ICD-10 Classification of Mental and Behavioural Disorders. Diagnostic Criteria for research. WHO, Geneva.World Health Organization (2002) Globalization, Diets and Noncommunicable Diseases.