Wednesday, October 30, 2019

The wealth and poverty of nations Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

The wealth and poverty of nations - Essay Example The treaty was signed in the mid-1990s, and is generally considered to be a big success. Treaty of Versailles This was the treaty that ended the First World War. It imposed the costs of the war on Germany. Some believe that the punitive nature of the treaty led to the Second World War. Hitler was able to exploit the negative effects of the treaty on Germans in order to come to power. The rest is history. Scramble for Africa This occurred at the end of the 1800s. At the time, much of Africa was undiscovered by Europeans. European nations wanted colonies and they sought to grab as much African land as they could. Sometimes this was done through negotiations and sometimes through violence. Great Depression This was a terrible time in world history. It occurred in 1929, when the stock market crashed. It led to widespread job losses around the world and rapid inflation. The problems caused by the Great Depression were only really resolved with the coming of World War II and the greater pr oductivity engendered by this conflict. Landes' view of winners and loser According to Landes, some countries have won the jackpot and others have not. So many factors effect the distribution of wealth and resources around the world. Some of these are based on climate. Others on cultural issues.

Monday, October 28, 2019

Translation Literary Translation Essay Example for Free

Translation Literary Translation Essay Preface This book has been five years in the writing. Sections of it have twice been stolen during travel and have been rewritten, hopeniliy better than the first time the fond hope of ail writers who have had their MSS lost, stolen or betrayed. Its progress has been further interrupted by requests for papers for conferences; four of these papers have been incorporated; others, listed in the bibliography are too specialised for inclusion here. It is not a conventional textbook. Instead of offering, as originally planned, texts in various languages for you to translate, I have supplied in the appendices examples of translational text analyses, translations with commentaries and translation criticism. They are intended to be helpful illustrations of many points made in the book, and models for you to react against when you do these three stimulating types of exercise. If the book has a unifying element, it is the desire to be useful to the translator, Its various theories are only generalisations of translation practices. The points I make are for you to endorse or to reject, or simply think about. The special terms I use are explained in the text and in the glossary. I hope you will read this book in conjunction with its predecessor, Approaches to Translation, of which it is in many respects an expansion as well as a revision; in particular, the treatment of institutional terms and of metalanguage is more extensive in the earlier than in this book. I dislike repeating myself writing or speaking, and for this reason I have reproduced say the paper on case grammar, about which at present I havent much more to say, and which isnt easily come by. This book is not written by a scholar, I once published a controversial piece on Corneilles Horace in French Studies, and was encouraged to work for a doctorate, but there was too much in the making that didnt interest me, so 1 gave up. And a German professor refused to review Approaches because it had so many mistakes in the bibliography; which is regrettable (he was asked to point them out, but refused; later, he changed his mind and reviewed the book), but academic detail is not the essential of that or this book either. I am somewhat of a itteralist, because I am for truth and accuracy. I think that words as well as sentences and texts have meaning, and that you only deviate from literal translation when there are good semantic and pragmatic reasons for doing so, which is more often than not, except in grey texts. But that doesnt mean, xt xn IBEFACh as Alex Brothenon (Amsterdam) has disparagingly written without evidence, that I believe in the * absolute primacy of the word1. There are no absolutes in translation, everything is conditional, any principle (e. g.accuracy) may be in opposition to another (e. g, economy) or at least there may be tension between them. Much as at times I should like to get rid of the two bugbears of translation, the dear old context and the dear old readership, alas, we never can. lean only go as far as saying that some words in a text are far less context-bound than others; and that some readerships (say of a set of instructions, of which the readership is the reason for its existence) are more important than others (say a lyric, where the poet and his translator) may only be writing for himself. Again when Halliday writes that language is entirely a social phenomenon and consequently collapses or conflates Biihlers expressive and appellative functions of language into the interpersonal function, stating that there is no distinction between the first two functions in language, I can only say that this is a matter of beliefor philosophy as the expression of belief, and that I disagree. But all this is to some extent a matter of emphasis (and reaction) rather than (diametrical) opposition. The single word is getting swamped in the discourse and the individual in the mass of society -1 am trying to reinstate them both, to redress the balance. If people express themselves individually in a certain type of text, translators must also express themselves individually, even if they are told they are only reacting to, and therefore conforming with, social discourse conventions of the time. Writing a book about translation, 1 am aware that this is a new profession, though an old practice, and that the body of knowledge and of assumptions that exists about translation is tentative, often controversial and fluctuating. This book is intended to be reasonably comprehensive, that is, to discuss most of the issues and problems that come up in translating. (In this aim, at least, the book is original. ) In spite of the controversial nature of several of its chapters, it is therefore designed as a kind of reference book for translators. However, some of the shorter pieces in Chapter 18 are inadequate and can only offer you a few pointers. I hope to expand the book (my last one on translation) for a second edition, and I would welcome suggestions for its improvement,  Acknowledgements I warmly thank Pauline Newmark, Elizabeth Newmark and Matthew Newmark, whom I have consulted so frequently; Vaughan James, who has helped so much at every stage; Vera North, who coped so superbly with the ins and outs of my handwriting; Mary FitzGerald; Sheila Silcock; Margaret Rogers, Louise Hurren; Mary Harrison; Simon Chau, Hans Lindquist, Rene Dirben, Robin Trew, Harold Leyrer, David Harvey. Contents Preface Acknowledgements xi xii Parti 1 2. Principles Introduction The Analysis of a Text Reading the text The intention of the text The intention of the translator Text styles The readership Stylistic scales Attitude Setting The quality of the writing Connotations and denotations The last reading Conclusion 11 11 12 12 13 13 14 15 15 16 16 17 17 19 19 19 20 22 23 3 The Process of Translation Introduction The relation of translating ro translation theory The approach. The textual level The referential level v  CONTENTS The cohesive level The level of naturalness Combining the four levels The unit of translating The translation of texts The translation of proper names Revision Conclusion 23 24 29 30 32 35 36 37 Language Functions, Text-categories and Text-types The expressive function The informative function The vocative function The aesthetic function The pharic function The metalingual function Translation Methods Introduction The methods Comments on the methods Equivalent effect . Methods and Lext-categories Translating Other methods 39 39 40 41 42 43 43 45 45 45 47 48 50 51 52 The Unit of Translation and Discourse Analysis Introduction Coherence Titles Dialogue cohesion Punctuation Sound-effects Cohesion Referential synonyms Enumerators Other connectives Functional sentence perspective Contrasts The lower units of translation Conclusion 54 54 55 56 57 58 58 59 59 60 60 60 63 65 66. CONTENTS vii  68 68 69 70 72 73 73 74 74 75 75 76 77 77 78 80 81 81 82 82 83 83 84 84 85 88 89 90 90 90 90 90 90 91 91 94 95 % 96 97 97 7 Literal Translation Introduction Varieties of close translation The translation of poetry Faithful and false friends Words in their context Elegant variations Back-translation of text (BTT) Accepted translation Constraints on literal translation Natural translation Re-creative translation Literary translation The sub-text The notion of theKno-equivalent1 word The role of context 8 The Other Translation Procedures Transference Naturalisation Cultural equivalent Functional equivalent Descriptive equivalent Synonymy Through-translation Shifts or transpositions Modulation Recognised translation Translation label Compensation Componential analysis Reduction and expansion Paraphrase Other procedures Couplets Notes, additions, glosses 9 Translation and Culture Definitions Cultural categories General considerations Ecology Material culture Vltl CONTENTS Social culture Social organisation political and administrative Gestures and habits Summary of procedures 98 99 102 103 10. The Translation of Metaphors Definitions Translating metaphors Types of metaphor 104 106 106 106 11 The Use of Componeniial Analysis in Translation Introduction Lexical words Cultural words Synonyms Sets and series Conceptual terms Neologisms Words as myths Conclusion U4 114 317 119 120 121 121 122 123 123 12 The Application of Case Grammar to Translation Introduction The translation of missing verbs, i. e. verbalforce The translation of case-gaps Various types of case-partner Contrast and choice in translation Some related issues Case partners of adjectives and nouns A remark on Tesniere Conclusion. 125 125 126 129 132 134 135 136 138 138 13 The Translation of Neologisms Introduction Old words with new senses New coinages Derived words Abbreviations Collocations Eponyms Phrasai words 140 140 141 142 143 145 145 146 147 CONTENTS }X Transferred words Acronyms Pseudo-neologisms The creation of neologisms A frame of reference for the translation of neologisms 147 148 148 149 150 14 Technical Translation Introduction Technical style Terms Varieties of technical style Technical and descriptive terms Beginning technical translation Translation method The title Going through the text Conclusion Appendix; sampletest. 151 151 151 152 152 153 154 L55 156* 158 IfrO 161 15 The Translation of Serious Literature and Authoritative Statements Introduction Poetry The short story/novel Drama Conclusion 162 162 162 170 172 173 16 Reference Boohs and their Uses; Tracing theUnfindable Word Introduction Resources [ Unfindables words 174 174 175 176 17 Translation Criticism Introduction Planofcriticism Text analysts The translators purpose Comparing the translation with the original The evaluation of the translation The translations future Marking a translation Quality in translation. 184 184 186 186 186 ! 87 188 189 189 192 X CONTENTS 18 Shorter Items Words and context The translation of dialect You and the computer Function and description The translation of eponyms and acronyms Familiar alternative terms When and how to improve a text Collocations The translation of proper names The translation of puns  ¦ The translation of weights, measures, quantities and currencies Ambiguity 193 193 194 195 198 198 201 204 212 214 217 217 218 221 225 19 20 Revision Hints for Exams and Deadlines By Way of a Conclusion Part II Methods. Introductory note Test 1 Tower needs clear eyes1, The Economist Text 2 Vppcr gastroint^imal endoscopy1, British Medical Journal Text 3 Brideshead Revisited (Waugh) Text 4 4Une certaine idee de la France (De Gaulle) Text 5 4Le Parti Socialiste (Source unknown) Text 6 Ala Recherche du Temps Perdu (Proust) Text 7 Presentation dun cas de toxoplasmose, Bordeaux Medical Text 8 Dialysebehandlung bei akutem Nierenversagen, Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrifi Text 9 Alexander von Humboldt (Hein) Text 10 VAdoraticm (BoreL) Text 11 Die Blasse Anna (Boll) Text 12 La SocUti Francaise (Dupeux) Text 13 ZumWohlealler\SC,4Z^. 229 231 234 238 242 245 248 250 254 259 264 267 272 277 Glossary Abbreviations Medical terminology BihHograpky Name index Subject index 282 286 288 289 291 292 PART I Principles Figures appear in Part I as follows: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 The dynamics of translation A functional theory of language Language functions, text-categories and text-types The Translation of metaphor Scalar diagrams Equation diagram Matrix diagram Parallel tree diagram  ¦ * 20 40 105 116 116 117 117 CHAPTER 1 Introduction. My purpose in this book is to offer a course in translation principles and methodology for final-year-degree and post-graduate classes as well as for autodidacts and home learners. Further, I have in mind that I am addressing non-English as well as English students, and I will provide some appropriate English texts and examples to work on. 1 shall assume that you, the reader, are learning to translate into your language of habitual use, since that is the only way you can translate naturally, accurately and with maximum effectiveness. In fact, however, most translators do translate out of theii own language (service translation) and contribute greatly to many peoples hilarity in the process. Further, I shall assume that you have a degree-level reading and comprehension ability in one foreign language and a particular interest in one of the three main areas of translation: (a) science and technology, (b) social, economic and/or political topics and institutions, and (c) literary and philosophical works. Normally, only (a) and (b) provide a salary; (c) is free-lance work. Bear in mind, however, that knowing a foreign language and your subject is not as important as being sensitive to language and being competent to write your own language dexterously, clearly, economically and resourcefully. Experience with translationese, for example, Strauss Opus 29 stands under the star of Bierbaum who in his lyric poems attempted to lie in the echoes of the German love poetry with ihe folk song and with the impressionistic changes, Opus 29 tekt im Zekhen Bkrboums, der als Lyriker versuchtet Nachklange des Mintwsangs mil dem Volkslied und mit impressicmistischen XPendungen zu verknupfen. (Record sleeve note) shows that a good writer can often avoid not only errors of usage but mistakes of fact and language simply by applying his common sense and showing sensitivity to language. Being good at writing has little to do with being good at essays, or at English 1 as you may have learned it at school. It means being able to use the 3 4 PRINCIPLES  appropriate words in the appropriate order for the obiect or process you are attempting to describe; continuously trying to improve your writing (a translation is never finished); and increasing your own English vocabulary co-extensively with your knowledge of new facts and new foreign-language words. And it means making flexible use of the abundant grammatical resources of your language, which are enriched by contemporary speech. It is something which, like translation, you can learn: you are not born a good writer; you do not have to be one now; you have to be determined to become one, to relate new experience to fresh language. Finallyj it means having a sense of order and pertinence learning to construct a specific {gezieh, purposeful) beginning, body and conclusion for your subject: a beginning that defines and sets the subject out; a body1 that gives and illustrates the pros and cons of the argument; a conclusion that states your own verdict — and all without irrelevance. A translator has to have a flair and a feel for his own language. There is nothing mystical about this sixth sense, but it is compounded of intelligence, sensitivity and intuition, as well as of knowledge. This sixth sense, which often comes into play (joue) during a final revision, tells you when to translate literally, and also, instinctively, perhaps once in a hundred or three hundred words, when to break all the rules of translation, when to translate malheur by catastrophe* in a seventeenth-centurv text, I cannot make you into a good translator; I cannot cause you to write well. The best I can do is to suggest to you some general guidelines for translating. I shall propose a way of analysing the source language text; I shall discuss the two basic translation methods; and I shall set out the various procedures for handling texts, sentences and other units. I shall at times discuss the relation between meaning, language, culture and translation. By offering plenty of examples I hope to provide enough practice for you to improve your performance as a translator. 9 The trmhvthe facts of the matter) SL writer 2 SL norms TEXT 10 Translator 5 TL relationship 6 TL norms 3 SL culture 4 SL setting and tradition Figure I. The dynamics of translation 7 TL culture 8 TL setting and tradition INTRODUCTION  5 What is translation? Often, though not by any means always, it is rendering the meaning of a text into another language in the way that the author intended the text. Common sense tells us that this ought to be simple, as one ought to be able to say something as well in one language as in another. On the other hand, you may see it as complicated, artificial and fraudulent, since by using another language you are pretending to be someone you are not. Hence in many types of text (legal, administrative, dialect, local, cultural) the temptation is to transfer as many SL (Source Language) words to the TL (Target Language) as possible. The pity is, as Mounin wrote, that the translation cannot simply reproduce, or be, the original. And since this is so, the first business of the translator is to translate. A texi may therefore be pulled in ten different directions, as follows: (1) The individual style or idiolect of the SL author. When should it be (a) preserved, (b) normalised? (2) The conventional grammatical and lexical usage for this type of text, depending on the topic and the situation. (3) Content items referring specifically to the SL, or third language (i. e, not SL or TL) cultures. (4) The typical format of a text in a book, periodical, newspaper, etc. , as influenced by tradition at the time. (5) The expectations of the putative readership, bearing in mind their estimated knowledge of the topic and the style of language they use, expressed in terms of the largest common factor, since one should not translate down (or up) to the readership, (6), (7), (8) As for 2,3 and 4 respectively, but related to the TL, (9) What is being described or reported, ascertained or verified (the referential truth), where possible independently of the SL text and the expectations of the readership. (10) The views and prejudices of the translator, which may be personal and subjective, or may be social and cultural, involving the translators group loyalty factor*, which may reflect the national, political, ethnic, religious, social class, sex, etc. assumptions of the translator. Needless to say, there are many other tensions in translations, for example between sound and sense, emphasis (word order) and naturalness (grammar), the figurative and the literal, neatness and comprehensiveness, concision and accuracy. Figure 1 shows how many opposing forces pull the translation activity {Vactivitti traduisante) in opposite directions. The diagram is not complete. There is often a tension between intrinsic and communicative, or, if you like, between semantic and pragmatic meaning. When do you translate Ilfaitfroid as Its cold1 and when as Im cold, Tm freezing1, Tm so cold, etc,, when that is what it means in the context? All of which suggests that translation is impossible. Which is not so. Why a book of this sort? Because I think there is a body of knowledge about translation which, if applied to solving translation problems, can contribute to a translators training. Translation as a profession practised in international organi- 6 PRINCIPLES sations, government departments, public companies and translation agencies (now often called translation companies) began only about thirty years ago; even now, the idea that ail languages (there are 4000) are of equal value and importance, and that everyone has a right to speak and write his own language, whether it is a national or a minority language (most countries are at least *bilinguaP) is not generally recognised. Translation as a profession has to be seen as a collaborative process between translators, revisers, terminologists, often writers and clients (literary works have to be checked by a second native TL reviser and desirably a native SL speaker), where one works towards a general agreement. Nevertheless, finally, only one person can be responsible for one piece or section of translation; it must have the stamp of one style. The principle with which this book starts is that everything without exception is translatable; the translator cannot afford the luxury of saying that something cannot be translated, Danila Seleskovitch, a brilliant interpreter and writer, has said: Everything said in one language can be expressed in another on condition that the two languages belong to cultures that have reached a comparable degree of development/ The condition she makes is false and misleading. Translation is an instrument of education as well as of truth precisely because it has to reach readers whose cultural and educational level is different from, and often lower or earlier, than, that of the readers of the original one has in mind computer technology for Xhosas. Foreign1 communities have their own language structures and their own cultures, foreign individuals have their own way of thinking and therefore of expressing themselves, but all these can be explained, and as a last resort the explanation is the translation. No language, no culture is so primitive that it cannot embrace the terms and the concepts of, say, computer technology or plainsong, But such a translation is a longer process if it is in a language whose culture does not include computer technology. If it is to cover ail the points in the source language text, it requires greater space in the target language text. There-fore, whilst translation is always possible, it may for various reasons not have the same impact as the original. Translation has its own excitement, its own interest. A satisfactory translation is always possible, but a good translator is never satisfied with it. It can usually be improved. There is no such thing as a perfect, ideal or ^correct translation, A translator is always trying to extend his knowledge and improve his means of expression; he is always pursuing facts and words. He works on four levels: translation is first a science, which entails the knowledge and verification of the facts and the larguage that describes them- here, what is wrong, mistakes of truth, can be identified; secondly, it is a skill, which calls for appropriate language and acceptable usage; thirdly, an art, which distinguishes good from undistinguished writing and is the creative, the intuitive, sometimes the inspired, level of the translation; lastly, a matter of taste, where argument ceases, preferences are expressed, and the variety of meritorious translations is the reflection of individual differences. Whilst accepting that a few good translators (like a few good actors) are INTRODUCTION 7 naturals, I suggest that the practical demands on translators are so wide, and the subject still so wrapped up in pointless arguments about its feasibility, that it would benefit students of translation and would-be translators to follow a course based on a wide variety of texts and examples. This book claims to be useful, not essential. It attempts to set up a framework of reference for an activity that serves as a means of communication, a transmitter of culture, a technique (one of many, to be used with discretion) of language learning, and a source of personal pleasure. As a means of communication, translation is used for multilingual notices, which have at last appeared increasingly conspicuously in public places; for instructions issued by exporting companies; for tourist publicity, where it is too often produced from the native into the foreign language by natives as a matter of national pride; for official documents,  such as treaties and contracts; for reports, papers, articles, correspondence? textbooks to convey information, advice and recommendations for every branch of knowledge. Its volume has increased with the rise of the mass media, the increase in the number of independent countries, and the growing recognition of the importance of linguistic minorities in all the countries of the world. Its importance is highlighted by the mistranslation of the Japanese telegram sent to Washington just before the bomb was dropped on Hiroshima, when mokasuiu was allegedly translated as ignored instead of considered, and by the ambiguity in UN Resolution 242, where the withdrawal from occupied territories was translated as le retrait des tmitoires occupes, and therefore as a reference to all of the occupied territory to be evacuated by the Israelis. Translation has been instrumental in transmitting culture, sometimes under unequal conditions responsible for distorted and biased translations, ever since countries and languages have been in contact with each other. Thus the Romans pillaged* Greek culture; the Toledo School transferred Arabic and Greek learning to Europe; and up to the nineteenth century European culture was drawing heavily on Latin and Greek translations. In the nineteenth century German culture was absorbing Shakespeare, In this century a centrifugal world literature has appeared, consisting of the work of a small number of international* writers (Greene, Bellow, Solzhenitsyn, Boll, Grass, Moravia, Murdoch, Lessing, amongst those still living, succeeding Mann, Brecht, Kafka, Mauriac, Valery, etc. )* which is translated into most national and many regional languages. Unfortunately there is no corresponding centripetal cultural movement from regional or peripheral authors. That translation is not merely a transmitter of culture, but also of the-truth, a force for progress, could be instanced by following the course of resistance to Bible translation and the preservation of Latin as a superior language of the elect, with a consequent disincentive to translating between other languages. As a technique for learning foreign languages, translation is a two-edged instrument: it has the special purpose of demonstrating the learners knowledge of the foreign language, either as a form of control or to exercise his intelligence in order to develop his competence. This is its strong point in foreign-language classes, which has to be sharply distinguished from its normal use in transferring meanings and conveying messages. The translation done in schools, which as a 8 PRINCIPLES  discipline is unfortunately usually taken for granted and rarely discussed, often encourages absurd, stilted renderings, particularly of colloquial passages including proper names and institutional terms (absurdly encouraged by dictionary mistranslations such as Giacopo for James1 and Siaatsrat for Trivy Councillor). Even a sentence such as: Quune maillc $auiat parfois a ce nssu de perfection auquel Brigitte Finn travailinit uvec une vigilance de toutes les seamdes, detail dans Yordre et elle sen consolait pourvu que cefut sans temotn. Mauriac, l.a Phanstenne^ might produce something like this from a sixth-former: That a stitch should sometimes break in that tissue of perfection at which Brigitte Pian was working with a vigilance to which she devoted every second, this was in order and she consoled herself for it provided it was without witness, which proves that each word construction is understood, where a more likely reading would be: If Brigitte Pian sometimes dropped a stitch in the admirable material she was working on with such unremitting vigilance, it was in the natural order of things and she found consolation for it, provided she had no witnesses. A translator, perhaps more than any other practitioner of a profession, is continually faced with choices, for instance when he has to translate words denoting quality, the words of the mental world (adjectives, adverbs, adjectival nouns, e. g. good, well*, goodness), rather than objects or events. In making his choice, he is intuitively or consciously following a theory of translation, just as any teacher of grammar teaches a theory of linguistics. La traduction appelle une theorie en acte, Jean-Rene Ladmiral has written. Translation calls on a theory in action; the translator reviews the criteria for the various options before he makes his selection as a procedure in his translating activity. The personal pleasure derived from translation is the excitement of trying to solve a thousand small problems in the context of a large one. Mystery, jigsaw, game, kaleidoscope, maze, puzzle, see-saw, juggling- these metaphors capture the play1 element of translation without its seriousness. (But pleasure lies in play rather than i 1 seriousness. ) The chase after words and facts is unremitting and requires imagination. There is an exceptional attraction in the search for the right word, just out of reach, the semantic gap between two languages that one scours Roget to fill. The relief of finding it, the smirk* after hitting on the right word when others are still floundering? is an acute reward, out of proportion and out of perspective to the satisfaction of filling in the whole picture, but more concrete. The quality of pleasure reflects the constant tension between sentence and word. You may have heard of a relatively new polytechnic/university subject called Translation Theory (Translatology1 in Canada, Traductologia in Spain, (Iter-INTRODUCTION 9 setzungswissenschaft in German-speaking countries, Translation Studies in the Netherlands and Belgium); this book is intended to introduce it to you. In a narrow sense, translation theory is concerned with the translation method appropriately used for a certain type of text, and it is therefore dependent on a functional theory of language. However, in a wider sense, translation theory is the body of knowledge that we have about translating, extending from general principles to guidelines, suggestions and hints. (The only rule I know is the equal frequency rule, viz, that corresponding words, where they exist metaphors, collocations, groups, clauses, sentences, word order, proverbs, etc. should have approximately equal frequency, for the topic and register in question, in both the source and target languages.) Translation theory is concerned with minutiae (the meanings of semi-colons, italics, misprints) as well as generalities (presentation, the thread of thought underlying a piece), and both may be equally important in the context. Translation theory in action, translation theory used operationally for the purpose of reviewing all the options (in particular, sensitising the translator to those he had not been aware of) and then making the decisions in fact the teeth of the theory is a frame of reference for translation and translation criticism, relating first to complete texts, where it has most to say, then, in descending level, to paragraphs, sentences, clauses,  word groups (in particular, collocations), words -familiar alternative words, cultural and institutional terms, proper names, 1 non-equivalent words, neologisms and key conceptual terms morphemes and punctuation marks. Note that metaphor, perhaps the most significant translation problem, may occur at all levels from word to text, at which level it becomes an allegory or a fantasy. What translation theory does is, first, to identify and define a translation problem (no problem no translation theory!); second, to indicate all the factors that have to be taken into account in solving the problem; third, to list all the possible translation procedures; finally, to recommend the most suitable translation procedure, plus the appropriate translation. Translation theory is pointless and sterile if it does not arise from the problems of translation practice, from the need to stand back and reflect, to consider all the factors, within the text and outside it, before coming to a decision, I close this chapter by enumerating the new elements in translation nov.\ as opposed to, say, at the beginning of the century: (1) The emphasis on the readership and the setting, and therefore on naturalness, ease of understanding and an appropriate register, when these factors are appropriate. (2) Expansion of topics beyond the religious, the literary and the scientific to technology, trade, current events, publicity, propaganda, in fact to virtually every topic of writing. (3) Increase in variety of text formats, from books (including plays and poems) to articles, papers, contracts, treaties, laws, notices, instructions, advertisements,  10 PRINCIPLES (4) (5) (6) (7) publicity, recipes, letters, reports, business forms, documents, etc. These now vastly outnumber books, so it is difficult to calculate the number or the languages of translations on any large scale. Standardisation of terminology. The formation of translator teams and the recognition of the revisers role. The impact of linguistics, sociolinguistics and translation theory, which will.

Friday, October 25, 2019

Personal Response to Marge Piercys A Work of Artifice :: Work of Artifice Essays

Personal Response to Marge Piercy's A Work of Artifice My initial response to "A Work of Artifice" by Marge Piercy, was one of profound sadness. In defining myself as the actual reader of this poem, my background becomes significant in my emotional response. "It is this reader who comes to the text shaped by cultural and personal norms and prejudices." (Bressler, p. 72) I come from a family of poets and published writers and have been reading and composing poetry since the age of 4. My first poem was published in the local newspaper, in which I won first prize, at age 5. I have experienced all kinds of texts, as well as many different forms of art. Being exposed to art and literature at such a young age has given me a wide variety of experiences and a huge cultural repertoire. I have even been to Pablo Picasso's home studio in France a number of years ago. What strikes the familiar chord in me through this poem, however, lies not in my cultural repertoire nor my literary background, but my own recent personal background. Having spent many years in an abusive relationship, I can identify with this poem on a very sensitive level. "It is your nature/ to be small and cozy,/ domestic and weak" (12-14). Throughout history, women have been subjected to prejudice and discrimination as the "weaker" sex, oft times becoming subservient to their husbands, bosses, etc. Men have been dominant for years, and in such, have squeezed the role of woman into the domestic realm, that which they believed to be "woman's work." Experiencing this first hand, although I did work two jobs to support a non-working husband and three children, I have felt a sense of weakness and being oppressed or kept down, kept small, which is the essence of this poem. The idea here represents the cultural norm (although this has changed in our culture today) of keeping women from speaking their mind by relegating them to purely domestic chores of little importance. I found no key gaps within this poem on a personal level, although I can define some that would occur should a reader not be familiar with the concept of bonsai trees. My father has grown bonsai trees for many many years, thus the concept of pruning back and stunting the growth of such trees has been in my cultural and personal repertoire since childhood.

Thursday, October 24, 2019

Comparitive Life Cycle Costing for of a Gasoline and a Hybrid Car

COMPARITIVE LIFE CYCLE COSTING FOR OF A GASOLINE AND A HYBRID CAR Digvesh khot , Narendran Neelagandan ABSTRACT The depletion of the fossil fuels is emerging as a concern for the whole world. The major sources for the consumption of this fossil fuel are our vehicles that use much of the oil for their operation. The need has been felt to devise the alternative fuel for our vehicles which should be the sustainable option so that it does not contribute to the environmental impacts rigorously. The objective of the comparative analysis is to know the feasibility of the hybrid car against the petrol car. The procedure adopted for the comparative analysis is to do life cycle costing of both the engines by considering the cost, benefits, maintenance and repairs for both the engines. The weight scoring model was also developed to analyze the feasibility of both the engines on the grounds of terms like safety, comfort, emissions and incentives. After completing the comparative analysis the life cycle costing model and the weight scoring model yield the results which were analyzed and the necessary recommendations were made. The results of the comparative analysis revealed that though the Hybrid cars initially cost more, but if they are run for more than 20,000 miles than the total cost per mile is less than the petrol cars. Also weighing model for both the cars gives more weightage to hybrid cars in terms of emissions and incentives. KEYWORDS: Life Cycle costing, alternative fuels, hybrid vehicles, petrol engines. LITERATURE REVIEW Today the major problem the whole world is facing is the depletion of fossil fuels. Most of the vehicles run on these fossil fuels. It is estimated that if the consumption of these fossil fuels continues at the same rate then by the end of 2030 the fossil fuels will get reduced by 50% of the current value and the prices will increase by $10/ gallon (Kibert, 2008). To overcome this problem a lot of automobile companies are working on the new design of engine which will work on some other source of energy other than fossil fuels. So hybrid model cars were developed keeping in mind of these problems. The first hybrid car model was developed by Dr Ferdinand Porsche in 1902 using a petrol engine, rotating at a constant speed to drive a ynamo, which charged the accumulators (www. wikipedia. com; 10, 2008). These accumulators fed current to electric motors contained within the hubs of the front wheels. Before this several advancements were made in non-gasoline motors, mainly electric cars (www. wikipedia. com). Such non-gasoline car was invented somewhere around years from 1832 and 1839, by Robert Anderson of Scotland a nd his electric carriage (www. wikipedia. com; 10, 2008). After that several car manufactures have been working on different technology for a long time and recently hybrid cars were developed (www. wikipedia. com; 10, 2008). Hybrid cars are vehicles driven by hybrid engines, which are any engine that combines two or more sources of power, generally gasoline and electricity (Lipman, et. al, 2003). There are two types of gasoline-electric hybrid cars; the parallel hybrid, and the series hybrid. Both of these use gasoline-electric hybrid technology (Lipman, et. al, 2003). In parallel hybrid cars, the gasoline and electric motors work together to move the car forward. In series, the gasoline engine either directly powers an electric motor which in turn powers the vehicle or charges the battery that will in turn power the motor(Lipman, et. l, 2003). Both these type of hybrid cars use another technology called Regenerative braking which stores the kinetic energy that is created while braking. This energy is stored in a battery which runs the electric motor. (Lipman, et. al, 2003) PROJECT SUMMARY This project was based on the life cycle costing and the comparative analysis of the hybrid engines and the petrol e ngines. The goal of the project was to calculate the total cost of both the engines during their life cycle and to analyze their performance and the impacts of environments. The first objective was to develop the life cycle cost model for studying their performance with respect to the annual mileage and the total cost per year spent on both type of cars. The second objective was to develop the weight scoring model for both types of cars to analyze them on the grounds of safety, comfort, emissions, and incentives. Life cycle model for both the cars were developed using the cost components like depreciation, fees and taxes, finance, fuel, insurance, maintenance , and repairs. All the data for these cost components for both types of engines were collected from the company websites and the EPA website. After the collection of these data, the life cycle cost model has been used for calculating the total life cycle cost for hybrid as well as petrol engines. The results were analyzed for both the alternatives and the conclusions were made. Weight scoring model was also developed for the comparative analysis which included the components like safety, comfort, emissions, and the incentives. The relative weights for these components were assigned according to the priorities from the consumer point of view. The rating points were also assigned and both the cars were rated according to the aforesaid components. The sources for the data were the company websites and the EPA websites for the emission data was also cited. The results of the Weight scoring model were then analyzed and the final conclusions were made. The comparative study for both the cars revealed that the hybrid cars are more efficient in terms of long term usage than the petrol cars. CASE STUDY DESCRIPTION Many car manufactures are working on this hybrid technology to improve the fuel consumption and decrease the emission levels and Honda is one of the leading car manufacturers who have released different hybrid models into the market (www. onda. com; 11, 2008). One of the models of Honda is â€Å"The Civic Hybrid 2008† which is the latest model which uses hybrid technology for propulsion, which is taken into study (www. honda. com; 11, 2008). The Civic Hybrid 2008 uses gasoline and electric power train for the propulsion. The engine is a 1399cc, 4 cylinder aluminum-alloy engine which supplies a power of [email  pro tected] (www. honda. com; 11, 2008). The electric motor supplies a maximum of 158 volts (www. honda. com; 11, 2008). The functioning of the system at various stages is different and is explained below. STARTING: The car uses an IMA (Integrated motor assist) system motor to start. If the IMA battery-pack charge is too low or if it’s very cold outside, the system has a separate battery and starter motor to back it up. (www. honda. com; 11, 2008) ACCELERATION: When extra acceleration is needed, while passing or climbing up an inclined region, the IMA System’s electric motor adds its torque automatically to the engine’s to give extra power. (www. honda. com; 11, 2008) CITY CRUISING: At steady speeds below 35 mph on level roads and under light throttle, fuel injection is ceased and the car is propelled olely by the electric motor. (www. honda. com; 11, 2008) HIGHWAY: At higher cruising speeds, the gasoline engine provides the motive power. The motor has been developed in such a way that it reduces the fuel consumption to particular levels. (www. honda. com; 11, 2008) BRAKING: The cars IMA System tap’s the kinetic energy that is produced in the vehicle, when b rakes are applied. During that period, the system’s motor turns itself into a generator, and helps in slowing down the car while at the same time it builds up the energy stored in the batteries. www. honda. com; 11, 2008) AT A STOP: When stopped, the gasoline engine automatically shuts off. When we lift our foot off the brake, and the engine restarts automatically. (www. honda. com; 11, 2008) These setups have been made to increase the vehicle performance and make them fuel efficient. The benefits of the refined gasoline electric power train are fuel economy and environment friendly emissions. This vehicle is certified by Environment protection agency (EPA) and passes all the regulation of EPA 2008 for environment. This car is also equipped with the rating of Advanced Technology of Partial Zero Emission Vehicle (AT-PZEV) which is the most stringent emission standards of United States which in turn is certified by California Air Resource Board (CARB). The technology being new is expensive and the initial cost for hybrid car is high as compared to the petrol engine cars. But if compared the life cycle cost is considerably less as compared to petrol engine due to the benefits of low emissions and fuel economy of the hybrid cars. (www. honda. om; 11, 2008) The petrol version of 2008 Honda civic sedan which is currently out in the market, is a normal car that runs on a gasoline engine. The engine is a 1799cc aluminum-alloy which produces [email  protected] (www. honda. com; 11, 2008). Gasoline or petrol engines are basic internal combustion engines which run on volatile fuels. They use air and fuel mixed together and a spark plug which produces the fire for combustion. The energy that is created i s used to run the drive shaft which in-turn runs the wheel (www. wikipedia. com; 10, 2008). Petrol engines were developed by the engineers Gottlieb Daimler and Karl Benz (both from Germany) in 1885 who both together started the Daimler-Benz car plant (www. wikipedia. com; 10, 2008). Gasoline engines are the widely used internal combustion engines which have been under constant improvisation to improve their efficiency and to reduce the emission levels from them (www. wikipedia. com; 10, 2008). Different industries have been working towards that and Honda is one of the industries who have taken serious steps to reduce the emission levels from normal gasoline engines. www. honda. com; 11, 2008) These are the two products for which the life-cycle cost model analysis is going to be created. LIFE CYCLE COST MODEL DESCRIPTION The Life Cycle Cost (LCC) model for comparative analysis of hybrid and the petrol cars was based on following cost components: †¢Depreciation †¢Insurance †¢Financing †¢Taxes and fees †¢Fuel †¢Maintenance †¢Repairs The sourc e for developing the model was (Shtub, et. al; 2005). LCCcars = LCCdepreciation + LCCinsurance+ LCCfinancing+ LCCtaxes and fees+ LCCfuel + LCCmaintenance+ LCCrepairs. The LCC model for car is the summation of the all the cost components which will yield the total life cycle cost (Shtub, et. al; 2005). The assumptions that have been made are in terms of time frame and the cost components are as follows: 1. Time frame: The time frame for calculation has been taken as 5 years. All the data for the cost components are based on 5 years. 2. Depreciation: it is the value of the vehicle which declines as the vehicle gets older. The age of the vehicle is related to the number of miles it has travelled. For both the cars it the average of 15, 000 miles per year is being considered. 3. Insurance: It is the average annual insurance that has been taken into account. The premium charged per year for the insurance of the car has been taken from the website of Honda company for the Louisiana state. 4. Financing: This is the interest expense on a loan in the amount of true market value purchase price + destination charge + base sales tax & initial fees (www. honda. com; 11, 2008). The values for these expenses are considered for Louisiana region assuming the 10% down payment and a loan term of 60 months. 5. Taxes and fees: we have included base sales taxes, license and registration fees in Louisiana region (www. dmunds. com, 11/2008). 6. Fuel: Assuming 45% driving on freeways and 55% driving in city we have collected the data for the fuel from www. epa. gov. 7. Maintenance: We have considered both the scheduled and the unscheduled maintenance in this cost components. 8. Repairs: the estimated expenses for repairs that do not come under the manufacturer’s warranty for five years, is taken as repairs. (www. edmund. com;11, 2008) The life cycle costing has been done for three conditions and they are: †¢Condition 1: cost component data for USA †¢Condition 2: cost component data for Louisiana. Condition 3: distance travelled is 10, 000 miles with a 55% driving in city and 45% driving on freeways. CHECK LIST MODEL DESCRIPTION The weighing model that has been created has taken into consideration of few factors which are not taken into account by many car owners. Factors like safety, comfort, and emissions do not play a significant factor for many people who plan to buy a car. This motivated us to create the scoring model for these factors. For the Honda civic Dx (2008 model) and Honda civic hybrid (2008, model) safety, comfort, and emissions are taken into account and the relative weights are given. The safety features are good for the in the midsize segment with disc for the front, 4 wheel ABC and the airbags for the head, and side (www. honda. com; 11, 2008). But these can be improved to the next level by adding the disc brakes to all the wheels and by increasing the number of airbags. The comfort level is taken into consideration as some people spend more time in the car driving around, so the comfort level plays an important part. The next criteria are the emission levels of the car which is taken into consideration for analyzing the environmental impact of them. The last criteria is the incentives that are being offered for the buying a hybrid cars. The source for developing the weighing model was (Shtub, et. al; 2005). On the basis of the above criteria the weighing model has been developed and the results were analyzed to make conclusions. RESULTS Life cycle costing Model 1: Honda Civic Dx 4 door Sedan Condition 1: cost component data for USA Maximum or manufacturer’s suggestion retail price: $ 15, 810. Owner ship: 1-5 years. Cost componentsCost ($) Depreciation 10,112 Fees and taxes 730 Finance 2331 Fuel9945 Insurance8348 Maintenance1720 Repairs643 Total life cycle cost37645 Note: The miles driven are kept constant and the values are tabulated for USA Source: www. autochannel. com, www. honda. com, and www. edmunds. com for cost component data except for the fuel data. www. epa. gov – fuel data. Condition 2: cost component data for Louisiana. Maximum or manufacturer’s suggestion retail price: $ 15, 810. Owner ship: 1-5 years. Cost componentsCost ($) Depreciation 9002 Fees and taxes 1407 Finance 2963 Fuel8478 Insurance10119 Maintenance2934 Repairs625 Total life cycle cost35528 Note: the above values are taken for Louisiana region Source: www. utochannel. com, www. honda. com, and www. edmunds. com for cost component data except for the fuel data. www. epa. gov- Fuel data. Condition 3: distance travelled is 10, 000 miles with a 55% driving in city and 45% driving on freeways. Maximum or manufacturer’s suggestion retail price: $ 15, 810. The car has driven for 10,000 miles (55% city and 45% freeways) Owner shi p: 1-5 years. Cost componentsCost ($) Depreciation 8851 Fees and taxes 1194 Finance 2405 Fuel6568 Insurance6759 Maintenance1176 Repairs564 Opportunity cost2999 Total life cycle cost30, 518 Note: the cost per mile for 10,000 miles is $. 1, for 15,000 miles is $. 48, and for 20,000 miles $0. 46. Source: www. autochannel. com, www. honda. com, and www. edmunds. com for cost component data except for the fuel data. www. epa. gov- Fuel data. Model 2: Honda Civic hybrid 4 door Sedan Condition 1: cost component data for USA Maximum or manufacturer’s suggestion retail price: $ 22, 600. Owner ship: 1-5 years. Cost componentsCost ($) Depreciation 11993 Fees and taxes 1974 Finance 4117 Fuel6155 Insurance10622 Maintenance2932 Repairs625 Total life cycle cost38478 Note: The miles driven are kept constant and the values are tabulated for USA Source: www. utochannel. com, www. honda. com, and www. edmunds. com for cost component data except for the fuel data. www. epa. gov – Fuel dat a. Condition 2: cost component data for Louisiana. Maximum or manufacturer’s suggestion retail price: $ 22,600. Owner ship: 1-5 years. Cost componentsCost ($) Depreciation 13128 Fees and taxes 511 Finance 3331 Fuel6846 Insurance9252 Maintenance1920 Opportunity cost3857 Repairs679 Total life cycle cost39525 Note: the above values are taken for Louisiana region Source: www. autochannel. com, www. honda. com, and www. edmunds. com for cost component data except for the fuel data. ww. epa. gov – fuel data. Condition 3: Distance travelled is 10, 000 miles with a 55% driving in city and 45% driving on freeways. Maximum or manufacturer’s suggestion retail price: $ 22, 600. The car has driven for 10,000 miles (55% city and 45% freeways) Owner ship: 1-5 years. Cost componentsCost ($) Depreciation 12189 Fees and taxes 1157 Finance 3615 Fuel4536 Insurance7491 Maintenance1402 Repairs596 Opportunity cost3212 Total life cycle cost34198 Note: the cost per mile for 10,000 miles is $. 68, for 15,000 miles is $. 51, and for 20,000 miles $0. 47. Source: www. autochannel. om, www. honda. com, and www. edmunds. com for cost component data except for the fuel data. www. epa. gov – Fuel data. Sensitivity analysis The data used for sensitivity analysis was miles per year travelled and the increment taken for it was 5000. For Model 1: Honda Civic Dx 4 door Sedan No of milesCost per mile($)Data source 100000. 61www. epa. gov 150000. 48www. epa. gov 200000. 46www. epa. gov 250000. 47www. epa. gov For Model 2: Honda Civic hybrid 4 door Sedan No of milesCost per mile($)Data source 100000. 68www. epa. gov 150000. 51www. epa. gov 200000. 47www. epa. gov 50000. 45www. epa. gov The initial cost for the petrol engine may be less than the hybrid cars but after 20000 miles of running hybrid cars are more fuel efficient than the petrol engines. After performing the sensitivity analysis we observed that initially the cost per mile for petrol is less than the hybrid cars , but as you increase the number of miles after 20,000 miles hybrid cars become more fuel efficient. The breakeven point on the sensitivity graph shows the changing nature of fuel efficiency for hybrid cars and petrol cars. Weight scoring method (Shtub, et. al; 2005). Weighing model for Honda civic DX 2008: For all criteria and the relative weight the values are assumed according to the priority of consumer. CriteriaRelative weightExcellent 30(assumed)Good 20(assumed)Fair 10(assumed)Poor 0(assumed)Factor score safety. 3v6 Comfort. 2v2 emissions. 4v2 incentives. 1v0 total1. 0010 Source: www. autochannel. com, www. honda. com, and www. edmunds. com for criteria data except the fuel data and www. epa. gov for fuel data. Weighing model for Honda civic hybrid 2008: For all criteria and the relative weight the values are assumed according to the priority of consumer. CriteriaRelative weightExcellent 30(assumed)Good 20(assumed)Fair 10(assumed)Poor 0(assumed)Factor score safety. 3v6 Comfort. 2v4 emissions. 412 incentives. 1v3 total1. 00v25 Source: www. autochannel. com, www. honda. com, and www. edmunds. com for criteria data except the fuel data and www. epa. gov for fuel data. The weighing score model shows that for hybrid cars the factor score is more than the petrol car and the reason is the hybrid cars are more emission free than the petrol car, also the criteria of the incentive for hybrid car makes it more preferable for the customers. The hybrid cars have a 25-100% federal tax credit which could move people towards buying the hybrid cars which are environmentally friendly as compared to petrol (www. honda. com; 11/2008) . Conclusions After carrying out the life cycle costing, sensitivity analysis, and the weight scoring the following conclusions can be reached: †¢Though the petrol cars are cheaper than the hybrid cars but the life cycle cost of hybrid cars after 20,000 miles makes it the better option. †¢Due to the depletion of fossil fuels, petrol cars do not serve to be the best option. Hybrid cars produced less emission than the petrol engines so they are environmentally friendly cars which makes them a sustainable product. †¢The incentives offered by the federal state government for buying the hybrid car may serve as a good step towards motivating people to go for hybrid option Bibliography autochannel. (2008). comparison of hybrid cars and petrol engine cars for miles travelled. Retrieved 11 24 , 2008, from www. autochannel. com. Avraham Shtub, j. F. (2005). Project management process, methodology and economics. pper saddle river, new jersey: pearson, prantice hall. edmund. (2008). cost comparison data for hybrid and petrol cars. Retrieved 11 24, 2008, from www. edmund. com. environmental protection agency. (2008). emissions for hybrid and petrol engines. Retrieved 11 29, 2008, from www. epa. gov. Environmental protection agency. (2008). fuel cost for hybrid and petrol engines. Retrieved 11 29, 2008, from www. epa. gov. H. Paul Barringer, P. D. (1996). Life Cycle Cost Tutorial. Houston, Texas: Marriott Houston Westside. Heather L. MacLean, e. (2000). A Life-Cycle Comparison of Alternative Automobile Fuels. journal of the air and waste management association , 1769-1779. honda USA. (2008). hybrid cars and petrol cars. Retrieved 11 24, 2008, from www. honda. com. Jeremy Hackney, R. d. (1999). Life cycle model of alternative fuel vehicles: emissions, energy,and cost trade-offs. science direct journal , 243-267. lester lave, h. m. (2000). life cycle analysis of automobile fuel/propulsion technologies. environmental science and technology , 1600-1698. Steven Kmenta, K. I. (2000). SCENARIO-BASED FMEA: A LIFE CYCLE COST PERSPECTIVE. Baltimore, Maryland: ASME. the fuel cell vehicle analysis of enegy use, emission and cost . (1998). pergamon , 381-385. Timothy E. Lipman, M. A. (2003). Hybrid-Electric Vehicle Design Retail and Lifecycle Cost Analysis. Berkeley, California 94720: Energy and Resources Group. wikipedia. (2008). hybrid engines and petrol ngines. Retrieved 10 29, 2008, from www. wikipedia. com. Kibert, C. J. (2008). Sustainable Construction . New Jersey: John Willey and Sons.

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

Descent from the Cross

In Rubens’ Descent from the Cross the element that makes the oil on canvas baroque in nature is that of the attention to detail. Rubens’ was contrary in his painting, which was a personal part of his artistry and not defined by the Baroque art period. His bodies in his paintings, though in action or even in repose were depicted although with muscles tone, the muscles seemed flaccid, as is the case in the above mentioned painting. The wounds of Christ are Baroque in their depiction because it is the opposite of what previous artistic movements has focused upon.There is the revelation of power in the gathering disciples and in the color palate being manipulated in the painting the subtle tones and the attention to chiaroscuro is what gives the painting a very Rubenesque feel. The viewer’s attention again is draw towards the bodies; albeit muscular, they are not showing signs of body fat, they are perfected in their grief, and in the area of opposites, this is what Rubens wanted to capture; the perfect body juxtaposed with very human emotions; the god body paired with humanity.In exact contrast to Rubens depiction of Christ’s flaccid yet toned body, Velazquez gives the viewer a Christ who hangs somber on the cross. His body is in classic Greek contrapposto; his body is aligned in an S-curve. The starkness of the painting; the black background, and the striking whiteness of Christ’s body adds to the power of the moment; the messiah on the cross. Rubens’ painting was chaotic with colors, but Velazquez shows restraint in this painting by allowing the moment, and the feeling transcend the painting, by toning down the colors. As opposed to Rubens’ Christ, Velazquez introduces the viewer to the bodies position on canvas.Rubens engaged other participants with Christs’ movement off the cross. Rubens has a similar piece which is depicting Christ being hoisted upon the cross. Velazquez on the other hand shows Christ so litary in the painting; he endures by himself, which is in itself a great contrast to the jumble of bodies prevalent in Rubens piece. Rubens also denoted a lot of muscle mass to Christ while Velazquez depicts his Christ more like a younger, realistic man; Velazquez makes his Christ human with human qualities and while Rubens portrays Christ bleeding the same human sentiment is not shown.Velazquez shows Christ himself grieving on the cross instead of Rubens’ painting where everyone but Christ is grieving and this is what makes Velazquez’s Christ human. Titian portrays Magdalene in somber tones, that are prevalent throughout the High Renaissance. The tones and colors used create a mood of reserved trepidation and the facial expression used is that of inquiry. This inquisitiveness is subtle in Titian’s art, but in certain facial expressions and through the use of color, the look of the characters becomes sometimes inquisitive, royal, or even pensive. The dark yet v ibrant colors employed by Titian exhibit a dreamlike state.The bodies contrapositions to one another serve to pair them, or in other Titian art, the sole character has body movements that puzzle together. What is typical in a Titian painting and Christ Appearing to the Magdalene is not exception, is the muted colors. The Rubens’ painting The Raising of the Cross is similar in fashion to Titian’s portrayal. Both use excellent color combinations to enhance the shadows in the paintings. The highlights on Christ’s body in Rubens’ painting is simply astonishing. The rest of the figures are clad in shadow, especially their faces.The curious counterpoint to this technique is that Titian uses shadow just as eloquently but with different results. Rubens’ shadows implore the viewer to judge the paintings, the scan the highlighted figure and question why the other figures are caste in shadow. Titian’s painting also begs the question of the shadows but his point is more clearly made; shadow is consistent with grief. If the viewer takes another glance of Rubens’ painting they will see that the shadowy figures’ faces are looking away from Christ in shame while one stares straight at him with wide-struck eyes as if not only in disbelief but in fear.Rubens was unique in incorporating foreground activity in his paintings. In The Raising of the Cross, there a dog in the foreground interested in the human activity (also, dogs are synonymous with loyalty; albeit, Rubens wanted to incorporate that idea with Christ). Rubens liked to have the human body in action in a specific setting, as has been the case for the previously analyzed Rubens painting. Rubens’ painting had an Italian influence with the male body. Just as Michelangelo depicted the male body in supreme example of humanity based after the Greek forms, so did Rubens want Christ to resemble those same perfected bodies.Titian’s painting does not do this, but instead, like Velazquez focuses on Christ’s humanity. Rubens had elements of other artists involved with his paintings such as the Caravaggio technique with light, making Christ the holder and light attraction in the paintings, highlighting his person and shadowing the rest. Also, the painting is a hubbub of activity which is reminiscent of Tintoretto’s busy canvases. The body’s of Rubens’ artwork seem to be bursting from the canvas, not only because of their muscle mass but the activity they are accomplishing and the fact that Rubens did not allow the edge of the canvas to dictate the end of action.One man’s body is cut off, lost to the edge of the canvas just as on the other side another man is constructed in similar fashion. This is not seen with Titian, even though he takes the body in asymmetric alignment with other points on the canvas. Rubens focuses his bodies in a diagonal axis in order to distribute action throughout the canvas. This is another point where Titian is different; his action does not give way for diagonals. Works Cited Sporre, Dennis. (2008). The Creative Impulse: An Introduction to the Arts. 8th edition. Prentice Hall.

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

American History Example

American History Example American History – Coursework Example The event that had the most impact on women in American history was the creation of the Constitution, after the Revolutionary War occurred. Abigail Adams, wife of John Adams, wrote to her husband to â€Å"remember the ladies . . . [in the new Constitution] because all men would be tyrants if they could† (Akers, 2007, p. ix). Abigail Adams’ letters to her husband are marked as the beginning American women’s activism for equal rights. While the Founding Fathers did not include women in the Constitution, they did put a heavy burden on women. It was up to women to teach both their sons and daughters republican morals and values. Their sons would eventually become voters and their daughters would teach the next generation of males about the republican type of government. Educating an entire nation about republicanism was left to the women of the nation. Building on the concept of â€Å"Republican Motherhood,† historian, Mercy Otis Warren, and writer, Judith Sar gent Murray, advocated for women’s education. At the time of the Revolution, most females had a third grade education at best. Warren and Murray both supported the idea of giving women a complete education as they were in charge of creating the mindset of the new republic. These women saw education as the key to making women equal to men. In fact, in 1790, Murray wrote that women and men were equal but women lacked formal education (Casper & Davies, 2006). Abigail Adams, Warren, and Murray would continue the fight for women’s equal rights using enlightenment philosophy until their deaths. Throughout the 1800s, as the educational system grew in the United States, women’s educational opportunities also developed until women were allowed into colleges. In the latter half of the 1800s, Elizabeth Blackwell entered the University of Michigan and gained her M. D. in the 1860s. Without those pioneering advocates for women’s education, women would not have gained the intellectual independence they did in the 1800s.ReferencesAkers, Charles W. (2007). Abigail Adams: A Revolutionary American Woman. New York: Pearson/Longman.Casper, Scott E. & Richard O. Davies. (Eds). (2006). Five Hundred Years: America in the World. New York: Pearson Custom Publishing.

Monday, October 21, 2019

End of the Cold War essays

End of the Cold War essays During World War II, many countries of the world came together to fight against the oppressive nations of Germany, Italy, Japan, and their allies. The United States, Russia, and Great Britain, who emerged as leaders of the fight against these adversaries, formed an alliance that was eventually able to overcome the threat that these three countries posed. However, after the war ended, the relationship between the United States and Russia went sour. While the friendship between the United States and Great Britain remained strong, tension between the Americans and Russians continued to escalate. Both countries built up their nuclear capabilities, while at the same time embarking on large-scale espionage missions against each other. In what later became known as the Cold War, the world was constantly on the brink of total nuclear war, and that threat did not conclude until the late 1980s, some forty years after the stalemate began. President Reagan, along with Soviet Secretary Gene ral Mikhail Gorbachev, diplomatically ended one of the most tense and militarily dangerous periods in the history of the world. Reagans strategic negotiating with the Soviets was the major catalyst that began the end of the Cold War. Ronald Reagan defeated incumbent Jimmy Carter in the fall of 1980 to win the Presidency of the United States. Reagan, the former movie star and governor of California, was known for his great communication skills, and his ability to stand strong on his issues while not seeming over-bearing. He came to power on the promise of pulling the United States out of its worst economic state since the Great Depression by cutting taxes, slashing government spending, and lifting a grain embargo against the Russians to aide American farmers. Reagan won easily over Carter, whose term had been plagued by economic struggles and foreign diplomacy blunders such as the Iran hostage affair that ended soon after Reagan took offic...

Sunday, October 20, 2019

Historic Timeline From 1850 to 1860

Historic Timeline From 1850 to 1860 The 1850s was a pivotal decade in the 19th century. In the United States, tensions over slavery became prominent and dramatic events hastened the nations movement towards civil war. In Europe, new technology was celebrated and the great powers fought the Crimean War. 1850 January 29: The Compromise of 1850  was introduced in the U.S. Congress. The legislation would eventually pass and be highly controversial, but it essentially delayed the Civil War by a decade. February 1: Edward Eddie Lincoln, a four-year-old son of Abraham and Mary Todd Lincoln, died in Springfield, Illinois.   July 9: President Zachary Taylor died in the White House. His vice president, Millard Fillmore, ascended to the presidency. July 19: Margaret Fuller, an early feminist writer and editor, died tragically at the age of 40 in a shipwreck on the coast of Long Island. September 11: The first New York City concert by Swedish opera singer Jenny Lind created a sensation. Her tour, promoted by P.T. Barnum, would cross America for the following year. December 7: The first clipper ship built by Donald McKay, the Stag Hound, was launched. 1851 May 1: An enormous exhibition of technology opened in London with a ceremony attended by Queen Victoria and the events sponsor, her husband Prince Albert. Prize-winning innovations shown at the Great Exhibition included photographs by  Mathew Brady and the reaper of  Cyrus McCormick. September 11: In what became known as the Christiana Riot, a Maryland slaveholder was killed when he attempted to capture a runaway slave in rural Pennsylvania. September 18: Journalist Henry J. Raymond published the first issue of the New York Times. November 14: Herman Melville’s novel Moby Dick  was published. Henry Clay. Getty Images 1852 March 20: Harriet Beecher Stowe published Uncle Tom’s Cabin. June 29: Death of Henry Clay. The great legislators body was taken from Washington, D.C. to his home in Kentucky and elaborate funeral observances were held in cities along the way. July 4: Frederick Douglass  delivered notable speech, â€Å"The Meaning of July 4th for the Negro.† October 24: Death of Daniel Webster. November 2: Franklin Pierce elected President of the United States. 1853 March 4: Franklin Pierce sworn in as President of the United States. July 8: Commodore Matthew Perry sailed into Japanese harbor near present day Tokyo with four American warships, demanding to deliver a letter to the emperor of Japan. December 30: Gadsden Purchase signed.   The sinking of the S.S. Arctic. Library of Congress   1854 March 28: Britain and France declare war on Russia, entering The Crimean War. The conflict between was costly and had a very confusing purpose. March 31: Treaty of Kanagawa signed. The treaty opened Japan up for trade, after considerable pressure from the United States. May 30: The Kansas-Nebraska Act signed into law. The legislation, designed to lessen the tension over slavery, actually has the opposite effect. September 27: The steamship S.S. Arctic collided with another ship off the coast of Canada and sank with a great loss of life. The disaster was considered scandalous as women and children were left to die in the icy waters of the Atlantic. October 21: Florence Nightingale left Britain for the Crimean War. Her service aiding battlefield casualties would make her a legend and set a new standard for nursing. November 6: Birth of composer and bandleader John Philip Sousa. 1855 January 28: The Panama Railroad opened, and the first locomotive to travel from the Atlantic to the Pacific traveled on it. March 8: British photographer Roger Fenton, with his wagon of photographic gear, arrived at the Crimean War. He would make the first serious effort to photograph a war. July 4: Walt Whitman published his first edition of Leaves of Grass in Brooklyn, New York. November 17: David Livingstone became the first European to reach Victoria Falls in Africa. November 21: Violence over slavery erupted in the U.S. territory of Kansas at the start of the pre-war troubles that would become known as â€Å"Bleeding Kansas.† Congressman Preston Brooks attacked Senator Charles Sumner on the floor of the U.S. Senate. Getty Images 1856 February 18: The Know-Nothing Party held a convention and nominates former president Millard Fillmore as its presidential candidate. May 22: Senator Charles Sumner of Massachusetts was  attacked and beaten with a cane in the U.S. Senate chamber by Representative Preston Brooks of South Carolina. The nearly fatal beating was prompted by a speech the anti-slavery Sumner gave in which he insulted a pro-slavery Senator. His attacker, Brooks, was declared a hero in the slave states, and southerners took up collections and sent him new canes to replace the one he had splintered while beating Sumner. May 24: Abolitionist fanatic John Brown and his followers perpetrated the Pottawatomie Massacre in Kansas. October: A series of incidents begin the Second Opium War between Britain and China. November 4: James Buchanan elected president of the United States. 1857 March 4: James Buchanan  was inaugurated as President of the United States. He became very ill at his own inauguration, raising questions in the press about whether he had been poisoned in a failed assassination attempt. March 6: The Dred Scott Decision was announced by the U.S. Supreme Court. The decision, which asserted that African Americans could not be American citizens, inflamed the debate over slavery. 1858 August–October 1858: Perennial rivals Stephen Douglas and Abraham Lincoln held a series of seven debates in Illinois while running for a U.S. Senate seat. Douglas won the election, but the debates elevated Lincoln, and his anti-slavery views, to national prominence. Newspaper stenographers wrote down the content of the debates, and portions that were published in newspapers introduced Lincoln to an audience outside of Illinois. 1859 August 27: The first oil well was drilled in Pennsylvania to a depth of 69 feet. The following morning it was discovered to be successful. The modest well would lead to a revolution as petroleum taken from the ground would propel the rise of industry. September 15: Death of Isambard Kingdom Brunel, the brilliant British engineer. At the time of his death his enormous steel ship The Great Eastern was still unfinished. October 16: Abolitionist radical John Brown launched a raid against the U.S. arsenal at Harpers Ferry. Brown hoped to stir up a slave uprising, but his raid ended in disaster and he was taken prisoner by federal troops. December 2: Following a trial, abolitionist John Brown was hanged for treason. His death energized many sympathizers in the North, and made him a martyr. In the North, people mourned and church bells tolled in tribute. In the South, people rejoiced.

Saturday, October 19, 2019

Seminar in criminology -Discussion 11 Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Seminar in criminology -Discussion 11 - Essay Example For example, one of the oldest inmates, who is 53 years, Jack Hill says that prisons are likely to make an inmate breakdown psychologically (HD Documentary, 2014). Another 30 year old inmate by the name Armando Doctor, seems to have more psychological pains than the other inmates (HD Documentary, 2014). For example, he says that he was aggravated and angry and that is why he was cutting himself several times. In Sykes study, he revealed that the attacks directed on an inmate’s sense of individual worth were similar to issues of incarceration. Though Sykes (2014) study was carried out many decades ago when life in prison was so much more brutal and degrading to the inmates, the prisons in this century in the U.S are more improved. Nonetheless, the deprivation of liberty, heterosexual relations, goods and services, security and autonomy as studied by Sykes (2014) are still present as noted in the documentary. A clear illustration of such deprivations which are discussed by Sykes (2014) is evident in the documentary, where the prison staff indicates that they do the best to ensure that no inmate has sharp objects or weapons in their possession, as it could result to an attack on enemy inmates or the prison staff. Hence, it is clear that even though prisons were intended to protect the society from violent people, prisons themselves can also be a place of death for the inmates themsel ves. Sykes, G. (2014). Inmate subcultures. In J. Wooldredge & A. Thistlethwaite (Eds.), Forty Studies that Changed Criminal Justice: Explorations into the History of Criminal Justice Research. Boston, MA: Little, Brown &

The Guilford Four Term Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

The Guilford Four - Term Paper Example The intensity of the ensuing aggression culminated into the deployment of the British Army in Ireland. The IRA (Irish Republican Army) was one of the most violent military parties that fought for Ireland’s independence. In the early 1970s, the group started challenging British troops in Ireland. With time, the group’s violence developed into massive bombing campaigns aimed at public utility, civilian, as well as military targets. When the British, in the effort to control the increasing aggression, introduced incarceration without trial in the year 1971 August, corroboration for the IRA increased. There arose many cases of injustices in the British legal system when dealing with Irish-related cases – wrong imprisonment of innocent Irish victims by the British government increased significantly (Fitzduff and O’Hagan, 2000). This paper delves into the Guilford episode, an incident that had to do with drug-induced and coerced confessions, fabricated and suppr essed evidence, and a society under siege dashing into judgment. The Guilford episode saw the arrest and false conviction of four innocent people following the bombing of the Guildford and Woolwich English pubs, which English soldiers liked frequenting while off duty. The suspects were henceforth referred to as the Guilford Four. The bombing led to the death of seven people and forty-two others were sustained injuries (Howard, 1992). The paper also explores the political and cultural climate that was present in both England and Ireland at the time of the bombing, and talks about English attitudes towards the Irish. Introduction The case of the Guilford Four presents a good example of an injustice in an Irish-related case that took place on 22 October 1975, when Paddy Armstrong, Paul Hill, Carole Richardson, and Gerry Conlon, four young people from Northern Ireland were convicted for the 5 October 1974 bombings of Guilford and Woolwich on behalf of the Irish Republican Army. The bomb s went off in pubs in Guilford and Woolwich that British soldiers liked to visit while off duty, killing seven people and injuring forty-two others. This was the reason as to why they were selected as targets by the IRA. In other words, this terrorist attack was part of a bombing campaign and a wave of violent attacks that the Irish Republican Army committed against Great Britain in the 1970s (Bihler, 2009). The political and cultural climate that was present in both England and Ireland at the time of the bombing The Guilford and Woolwich bombings occurred at a time when IRA had taken a horrible toll on Britain – in the first ten months of the year 1974; Britain had experienced ninety-nine bombings with injuries amounting to approximately one hundred and forty five people and fatalities/deaths amounting to nineteen people. Spaced out as the bombings were, the deaths and injuries might have been at a tolerable level, but on 21 November 1974, all this changed with the Guilford and Woolwich bombings. In retaliation to the two bombings, Britain convulsed with anger – angry mobs assailed innocent Irish residents in Birmingham streets and in London, they firebombed Irish businesses. Innocent Irish people became scapegoats for the atrocities of the IRA and the attempts of public officials to appeal for calm and stop the bombings in the streets were futile (Howard, 1992). A sampling of headlines as well as sub-headlines from October through

Friday, October 18, 2019

Hard Rock Cafe Term Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Hard Rock Cafe - Term Paper Example Forecasting is one method that has led to the success of the restaurant. With forecasting, the management can analyze the forces of demand and supply and make reasonable decisions. They can also determine the point where profits will be maximized. However, forecasting is not realistic as it can be affected by economic changes due to the cyclical nature of the market (Evans 2002). The actual results might differ from the forecasted data giving rise to risk. Therefore, it important to ensure that proper forecasting is done using reliable data and models. Introduction Hard Rock Cafe has grown at a very fast rate from a one pub in 1979 to cafe having 129 branches in over 40 countries internationally. With such growth, the Cafe has been successful in delivering quality services and ensuring maximum customer satisfaction. Nowadays, the hospitality industry is growing drastically. For this reason, the hotels require consistent progress to attain a competitive edge. Operations management is important to ensure that daily activities of an organization are achieved efficiently. This report will analyze the operation management of Hard Rock Cafe with regard to its forecasting strategy. The current forecasting strategy of the Restaurant will be analyzed and suggestions on other possible strategies with regard to sales will be discussed. In order to assess the future perspectives, it is important to analyze the current situation first. 1. Hard Rock Cafe’s forecasting strategy There are different forecasting applications at Hard Rock Cafe. The forecasts relate to the long-run, intermediate and short run. Long run forecasting methods are used in establishing a better capacity plan. Intermediate forecasting methods are used when Hard Rock Cafe aims at establishing good contracts with its main suppliers. The method is used to forecast on revenues using the pricing and costing information in respect of every cafe. Short term forecasting is used on daily sales and takes in to account variables such as events. The point of sale (POS) system is used in forecasting sales. The POS captures daily sales for each customer in all its cafes around the world. All daily sales are transmitted to the headquarters database electronically. From there, the financial team uses the data for forecasting purpose. In forecasting any anticipated events that might impact sales forecasts are taken into account. Such events might include sporting events or concerts to be performed anywhere near the cafes. The daily forecasts are further broken down to hourly sales which are used for employee scheduling purposes. Another forecasting strategy is Cafe’s menu planning which is done using multiple regressions. Multiple regression analysis helps the managers determine the degree of responsiveness on the quantity demanded to changes in price. Forecasting is also used in reorganizing the menu. This is because it measures the domino effect it would have on the menu items. Forec asting is also used in evaluating the performance of managers and setting rewards such as bonuses. Hard Rock Cafe uses a 3 year weighted moving average on cafe sales for this purpose. Bonuses are awarded when managers exceed their targets. Finally, forecasting is used in staff recruitment and management. Future demand is calculated and used to determine the period when to hire more staff or manage its staff in each department of the restaurant. Hard Rock Cafe can also use forecasting in the following areas: Establishing new outlets Determining future market changes by analysis the economic factors New products and its impact to the customers. 2. The role of

The effects of the Ottoman Empire on modern day Crete Essay

The effects of the Ottoman Empire on modern day Crete - Essay Example Crete, therefore, has a rich history that informs how individuals strove to build a better world for the rest of the human population. The past struggles of the Cretan people define their modern culture. Multiple events helped create the Cretan culture. To begin with, conquests have made the modern day Crete. This mainly occurred due to the wealth associated with the Island as different parties sought to gain economically from Crete. In addition, religion hugely influenced the development of the region. This occurred in terms of religious conversion and religious conflicts. Notably, Islam and Christianity informed the cultures and attitudes of the residents of Crete. In addition, intervention by international parties influenced the development of Crete. Modern Cretans have a culture of self-defense and self-reliance. In this sense, the citizens believe that they should assume the responsibility of their own lives. In such a nation, individuals slightly delineate from politics since they believe pure hard work relieves one from poverty. Self-reliance is notable in the military culture of Cretans. For instance, a significant number of surveys note that every household in Crete owns at least one gun. These guns are either legal or illegal. In the 17th century’s rebellions against the Christian rule, the Ottoman authorities usually responded by executing several bishops and Christians. In turn, the Greeks attacked the Turkish people. It is notable that there were huge casualties on both sides of the war. The Muslims who migrated into the northern fortified towns experienced famine that consumed almost 60% of the population (Kyriakopoulos, 2008). These experiences seemed to have forged an attitude among Cretans that the state mig ht not always protect them. In this turn, they ensure their own security by owning guns. The Cretans have a contemporary language that borrows heavily from the region’s development. In as much as the general

Thursday, October 17, 2019

Connection paper Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Connection paper - Essay Example For King, his imprisonment became the very reason why he wrote his letter while Thoreau’s imprisonment in a way influenced his perceptions and understanding as well as his courage to express his arguments in his article. The two are principled men who did their best to stand on what they believed in even in the midst of chaos. They both present their discourse on the basis of reason, using quotations from the Bible and well-respected men; seek to be understood, appealing to sense and sensibility of the people concerned who are politicians, Whites, Blacks, and Clergymen as well as discuss just laws, unjust laws, eternal and natural laws. Firstly, the aforementioned freedom fighters reflect in their written works of their influence from the Bible. As a clergyman, it was natural for King to mention God and the Bible but he emphasized how men should work with God to accomplish His purposes here on earth. Despite his co-clergymen’s discourse that the social issues King is fi ghting for are issues that the gospel has no real concern for, he argues that â€Å"human progress comes through the tireless efforts of men willing to be co-workers with God†. ... Such quotations show how Thoreau uses information from the Bible to reflect on the circumstances he is facing. To make their arguments even stronger, the two authors named and quoted other philosophers such as Socrates, St. Augustine, Martin Buber, Confucius and Paley. King claims that he does not seek to go against government while Thoreau stands on the other side of the balance and they both are expressed the reason for their actions. King debated that he and his colleagues have brought their concern to the people in authority for it to be resolved. However, their pleas for equality and just treatment have been disregarded so that they had to resort to taking action. He presented how they have acted with all the discretion in accordance to the circumstances in Birmingham and explained how they finally have to â€Å"create constructive, nonviolent tension which is necessary for growth†. Similarly, Thoreau accounts that he is not a man who is violent in expressing himself but, he â€Å"quietly declares war with the State†, speaking about his reactions to the demands for him to pay â€Å"a certain sum toward the support of a clergyman†. Using the quotations and philosophers mentioned above, the two writers presented their reasonable actions. They effectively explained the principles on which they stand on and tried to persuade their audience using intellectual arguments instead of the violence that they have been perceived to hold. King and Thoreau believe in the existence of unjust laws. King defines and contrasts just and unjust laws to make clear his understanding of the subject. He quotes St. Augustine saying â€Å"an unjust law is no

Medical Marijuana and the impact on hiring and drug testing Essay

Medical Marijuana and the impact on hiring and drug testing - Essay Example During the hiring process, the applications are reviewed, right candidates selected for interview, candidates are tested, the hiring decision is made by choosing between the candidates, and carrying out various pre-employment tests and checks including drug tests. The employment may be dependent upon a negative drug test. However, they are people who have been prescribed to use drugs, especially marijuana for medical purposes at the workplace. Therefore, drawing on a variety of sources the paper will discuss the impact of medical marijuana on the hiring process after contacting four human resources via computer-assisted interviews. Recruitment and selection is a very important human resource task. Elearn (15) defines recruitment as the process of establishing that the firm requires employing qualified people through competitive application. On the other hand, selection entails the processes of selecting applicant (s) who is/are suitable candidate(s) to fill a post. Four human resource managers (HR) were interviewed, two were in the automobile sector and two were in the beverage industry. They were contacted via computer-assisted interviews because face-to-face interviews required numerous authorizations and travelling. Therefore, the computer assisted interviews were convenient. The interviewees consisted of: Arnnon Geshuri sof Tesla Motors, 3500 Deer Creek Road, Palo Alto, CA 94304, 650-681-500; James Williams of Polaris Industries Inc. who joined the firm in 2011. Contacts Marlys Knutson, 763-542-0533; Rebecca Alminiana of Monster Beverage Corporation. Contacts, 951-270-0660, Corona CA; finally, Elsa Monterr oso-Burgos who is the director of human resources at Tampico Beverages company. Contacts 3106 North Campbell Ave, Chicago, IL. 60618, (773) 296-0190. Based on the interview responses I got from the four HR managers in the automobile industry as well as beverage

Wednesday, October 16, 2019

Connection paper Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Connection paper - Essay Example For King, his imprisonment became the very reason why he wrote his letter while Thoreau’s imprisonment in a way influenced his perceptions and understanding as well as his courage to express his arguments in his article. The two are principled men who did their best to stand on what they believed in even in the midst of chaos. They both present their discourse on the basis of reason, using quotations from the Bible and well-respected men; seek to be understood, appealing to sense and sensibility of the people concerned who are politicians, Whites, Blacks, and Clergymen as well as discuss just laws, unjust laws, eternal and natural laws. Firstly, the aforementioned freedom fighters reflect in their written works of their influence from the Bible. As a clergyman, it was natural for King to mention God and the Bible but he emphasized how men should work with God to accomplish His purposes here on earth. Despite his co-clergymen’s discourse that the social issues King is fi ghting for are issues that the gospel has no real concern for, he argues that â€Å"human progress comes through the tireless efforts of men willing to be co-workers with God†. ... Such quotations show how Thoreau uses information from the Bible to reflect on the circumstances he is facing. To make their arguments even stronger, the two authors named and quoted other philosophers such as Socrates, St. Augustine, Martin Buber, Confucius and Paley. King claims that he does not seek to go against government while Thoreau stands on the other side of the balance and they both are expressed the reason for their actions. King debated that he and his colleagues have brought their concern to the people in authority for it to be resolved. However, their pleas for equality and just treatment have been disregarded so that they had to resort to taking action. He presented how they have acted with all the discretion in accordance to the circumstances in Birmingham and explained how they finally have to â€Å"create constructive, nonviolent tension which is necessary for growth†. Similarly, Thoreau accounts that he is not a man who is violent in expressing himself but, he â€Å"quietly declares war with the State†, speaking about his reactions to the demands for him to pay â€Å"a certain sum toward the support of a clergyman†. Using the quotations and philosophers mentioned above, the two writers presented their reasonable actions. They effectively explained the principles on which they stand on and tried to persuade their audience using intellectual arguments instead of the violence that they have been perceived to hold. King and Thoreau believe in the existence of unjust laws. King defines and contrasts just and unjust laws to make clear his understanding of the subject. He quotes St. Augustine saying â€Å"an unjust law is no

Tuesday, October 15, 2019

The Political Evolution and Development Policies (successes and Essay

The Political Evolution and Development Policies (successes and failures) of UGANDA - Essay Example He developed a National Resistance Movement (NRM) to vigilantly let free the city and countryside residents without provoking their cultural specialties. In 1994, Museveni’s party along with the NRM managed to get two third majority in the Assembly election. Further he managed to win two no-party presidential elections and legalized the ‘Movement’, however the success of the movement is considered to be doubtful due to the changing political environment (Kaiser & Okumu 2004 p.2-3). According to Johann Kriegler, the expression – developing countries in Africa – is no longer true. This regression is attributed to the worsening rate of child death, life expectancy, per capita Income, GDP and HIV/AIDS. Most of the African countries have nil or negative economic growth. With various religious and other interferences, the basic ethnic beliefs and practices of tribal Africans have been forgotten. To understand the democratic development of African politics, democracy in Africa should be considered as by Africans and for Africans. European Unions and the United States have played a major role in Africa’s development. The author asserts that they should play a more dominant role in the development of the continent and exceed the amount of contributions made thus far. Further Africa should regulate its policies and follow open door systems towards international markets. While kindness is poured by way of truckloads of grains, it would be better to take it from African farmers rather than taking away their livelihood with more supply of grains. Professor Amartya Sen notes that government tactlessness and famine are directly related to poverty. Constitutional rights and liberty create and guarantee prospects of involvement and are essential not only in preventing unbalanced allocation of shortcoming but also in assuring equal economic privileges.

Monday, October 14, 2019

Trends in Business Communication Essay Example for Free

Trends in Business Communication Essay Over the past two decades technology has advanced rapidly, bringing substantial change in how people communicate in business. While traditional methods of communications such as formal letters and business meetings still take place, even these types of communications have changes dramatically. With the rise of personal computers and the internet in the early 1990’s, nearly every form of communication in business today would be largely unrecognizable to businesspersons from previous decades. The development of these business communication methods are one of the biggest reasons for movement toward an increasingly global economy today. In today’s business environment, typed letters are seldom used. In the times when they are used, they are used as more of a formality than as an everyday form of communication. From personal business experience, they are mainly used to personalize a relationship with clients and most often times are reinforced with electronic communications. Even the way letters are written in today’s business environment is drastically different from years past. Electronic methods for producing and personalizing the letters have been greatly enhanced by the software available today. As for non-formal written communications such as memos, from personal experience they are almost never received in hardcopy. They are all disseminated via e-mail. E-mail is the communications forum that has most affected business communications. Whether formal or informal, it provides for immediate transmittal and reply. A common issue with e-mail communications is that they may become too burdensome, however. The ease of mass dissemination and the prevalence of its use can often lead to large volume of relatively unimportant e-mails. There have been methods developed to lessen this burden, however, including the ability to identify relatively important e-mails such as flagging them. While e-mail has provided a much more fluent and easier method of communication among co-workers and clients, there have been advances that allow businesspersons to accomplish many tasks with less communication with people than was necessary in the past. In today’s business environment, almost all successful companies have interactive websites for customers to research information or to directly communicate with customer support. Data research is constantly required for customer inquiries or for data mining in almost every position within a company. The development of networked databases and cloud computing has allowed employees to conduct almost all necessary research without even speaking to a customer or another employee. The advancement of cloud computing in recent years allows businesses to store and access data remotely, rather than maintaining their own infrastructure. It allows you to access data using any device with a network connection as well as to work on documents with other businesspeople in multiple locations. Cloud computing also allows unlimited storage space and through subscription to the software, allowing businesses to only use what they need. Telecommunications has also been developed into something drastically different than from just a few years ago. While almost all conferences and meetings took place in person not too long ago. More frequent meetings that include all personnel are now increasingly possible with advances in teleconferencing and on-line meetings. In my current position, meetings are held several times a week from offices all around the country on-line. Training is also being conducted in this manner with live training sessions on-line where you can interact with the instructor through instant messaging and telephone. Because of these methods, business can be conducted from almost anywhere a networked computer is available. Another trend that is being allowed by business communication is that employees are increasingly working from remote locations. Devices such as wikis, PDAs, and much more powerful networks and transportable computers have made many of these advances in business communication much easier. In a previous position, our director often worked from remote locations while away on either vacation or business trips almost seamlessly. In my current position, I frequently interact with employees who work from home. The continually advancing technology of recent years has brought about dramatic changes in business communication. In the years to come, it will allow companies to become increasingly paperless will likely provide even greater changes to the way that businesses communicate. Rapidly advances in mobile devices and the software available for them will make what today is viewed as extraordinary the norm. In all, the developments of the last few years have greatly enhanced business communication, improving productivity and generally lowering costs while enabling a company to increase revenues. Effective communications play a critical role in all relationships within a business from management to employee to client. slide 1 of 10 The efficiency and overall profitability of businesses who have quickly adapted to the new communication methods has greatly improved, leaving all other companies no choice but to try and keep up. Communication is probably the most critical factor in the business world of today and companies who can more quickly to develop more effective communication will almost certainly have a substantial advantage on their competition.