Tuesday, January 28, 2020

Properties of Prunus Persica Linn

Properties of Prunus Persica Linn Review on Phytochemical and Pharmacological Properties of Prunus persica Linn. Monika Rana *1, Deepak Kashyap2, Atul Kabra3 ABSTRACT Prunus persica Linn. Batsch (Family: Rosaceae), commonly known as Peach tree in English and Aru in Hindi, is native to Persia, China and also distributed in Australia, India and USA. Traditionally, the plant used in the treatment of constipation, laryngitis, menostasis, dermopathy and contusion. The major phytoconstituents reported in the plant include amygdalin, prunasin, persicaside, ÃŽ ²-sitosterol, quercetin etc. Pharmacological studies reported in this plant are antiallergic, anti-inflammatory, antiphotoaging, antitumor and spasmogenic effects. This review provides valuable information on phytochemical, pharmacological and traditional properties of the Prunus persica which will help the researcher for further studies. Keywords: Prunus persica Linn.; phytochemical; pharmacological; amygdalin. INTRODUCTION According to the World Health Organization, more than 80% of the world’s population mostly in poor and less developed countries depend on plant-based medicines for their primary health care needs.[1] About 35,000 plant species are being used in various human cultures around the world for medicinal purposes.[2] About 170 active compounds currently isolated from higher plants are widely used in modern medicine. Even today, approximately 80 % of such compounds depict a positive correlation between their modern therapeutic use and the traditional use of the plants from which they are derived. At least 7,000 medicinal compounds in the modern pharmacopoeia are derived from plants.[3,4] Prunus persica Linn. Batsch (Family: Rosaceae), commonly known as Peach tree in English and Aru in Hindi, is native to Persia, China and also distributed in Australia and USA. In India, it is cultivated only in the Himachal Pradesh, Kashmir and Uttar Pradesh.[5-7] Traditionally, the plant used in the treatment of constipation, laryngitis, menostasis, dermopathy and contusion.[8] Synonymns P. persica Linn. is also known by other names i.e. Pygeum persica Linn., Amygdalus persica Linn.[5] Vernacular Names P. persica Linn. has various vernacular names[6,8,10] as mentioned in Table 1. Table 1. Various vernacular names of Prunus persica Linn. BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION The peach is a small, deciduous and glabrous tree which grows upto 6m in height (Figure 1). The leaves of the plant are simple, alternate, long-lanceolate, serrulate, 8-15 cm long, 15-35 mm wide, petioles 1-1.5 cm, with glands and small stipules. The flowers of the peach are 1-2 cm in diameter, bisexual, pink, sepals pubescent on exterior, sepals and petals 5, stamens many, inserted with the petals on the calyx tube, pistil1, with 2 ovules. The fruit of the plant is 1-5 cm in diameter, tomentulose, drupe, with a fleshy outer layer surrounding a hard stone containing the seed, the stone deeply sculptured in the month of April- May. The fruit is matured in the season of August- September.[8] Figure 1: Plant of Prunus persica Figure 2: Fruit of Prunus persica Geographical Distribution Prunus persica is native to China and Persia. This plant is also cultivated in USA, New Zealand, Australia and Temperate Asia. In India, it is cultivated in Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Utttar Pradesh, and to a limited extend in Nilgiris. The plant is also distributed in the Pakistan, Japan and in the Deccan Region.[5-7] Ethnomedicinal Use The leaves of the plant are used as anthelmintic, insecticidal, laxative, sedative and vermicidal and also in the treatment of piles, leucoderma, and whooping cough. The fruit is used as an aperients, aphrodisiac, antipyretic, antiscorbtic, brain tonic, demulcent, mouth freshener, stomachic and useful in thirst, biliousness and â€Å"kapha†. [5,6,10] The oil from the seeds is abortifacient, good in piles, deafness, earache, stomach troubles of children.[10] The flowers are used as an anthelmintic and purgative.[7] CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS Prunus persica Linn. contains cyanogenetic glycosides, namely, amygdalin and prunasin[11,12] as the major constituents isolated from the seeds along with the glycerides,[13,14], sterols[15] and emulsin[16]. Rho et al. (2007) reported a new alkaloidal compound, persicaside, isolated from methanol soluble extract of the seed.[17] The stem bark of the plant contains 6-hydroxy 4-methoxy 2-O-ÃŽ ²-D-glucopyranoside, Crysophenol 8-O-ÃŽ ²-D-glactopyranoside, ÃŽ ²-sitosterol and Quercetin[18]. The leaves of the plant contains the caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, p-coumaric acid, kaempferol, quercetin, quercetin-3-glycoside, quercetin-3-rhamnoside, quinic acid, tannin, urosolic acid and zeaxanthin[19]. The essential oil from the plant contains the 130 compounds, the most important of which are benzaldehyde, limonene, 1-methylethylhydrazine, 4-ethenyl-1,4-dimethyl cyclohexene and 3-carene.[21] Fixed oil, called persic oil extracted from the seeds contains ÃŽ ²-sitosterol, and squalene [Figure 2] .[7] Figure 2. Various chemical constituents present in Prunus persica Linn. Traditional Uses About  ½ teaspoon of young leaves, pounded and mixed with water, is given twice daily after meal in dysentery. The leaves warmed over fire are rubbed against insect bite and pain in eyes. The pounded young leaves are applied on wounds for killing the wound worms in case of animals such as cow and mithun.[21] The paste of the plant along the table salt and water is applied on affected skin twice a day to kill germs in wounds and fungal infection.[22] The powdered seeds is mixed with water and usually applied on hands as vulnerary during winters.[23] The fruits of the peach is used in the treatment of damaged hair.[24] Therapeutic uses The plant is used to remove maggots from wounds and also used as demulcent and lubricant.[25,7] Crushed leaves are used to stain palms and feet, in wound healing, burning sensation, colouring palms and feet.[26] The oil extracted from seeds is applied externally for massaging in rheumatism.[27] Veterinary uses The plant leaves are used as a anthelmintic in traditional veterinary practices for the treatment of helminthosis in animals.[28,29] Non-medicinal Uses The fruits of the plant are edible, leaves serve as fodder and stem as firewood.[23] Root bark is used as a dye.[30] PHARMACOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES Anti-inflammatory activity Prunus persica Linn. possessed anti-inflammatory activitiy against rat osteoblast sarcoma cells whereas in carregenan induced paw edema it showed anti-inflammatory activity at a dose of 250 mg/kg. .[17,18,31] Antiallergic activity The ethanolic extract of the plant inhibits mast cell-mediated allergic inflammatory reaction by controlling calcium influx and NF-jB signaling.[32] Antiphotoaging effect The plant possesses the anti-photoaging effect which was assessed by DPPH, Western blot and reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction analysis. A compound named 2-methoxy-5-(2-methyl propyl) pryazine isolated from the peach was responsible for this activity.[33] Antitumor activity The cyanogenic glycosides, amygdalin and prunasin, isolated from Prunus persica seeds, significantly inhibited the Epstein-Barr virus early antigen activation induced by tumor promoter and showed anti-tumor activity.[12] Protection against skin carcinogenesis The Ku-35 extract of the plant showed protection against UV-induced DNA damage and carcinogenesis when applied topically.[34] Protection against UV-induced skin damage The protective effects of the flower extract of the plant (KU-35) were evaluated against solar ultraviolet (UV)-induced skin damage using in vivo models of UVB-induced erythema in guinea pigs and ear edema in ICR mice. Ku-35, a new cosmetic ingredient, showed protection from UVB-induced skin damage by topical application.[35] Spasmogenic effect The aqueous extract of peach leaves caused a dose-dependent spasmogenic effect at the dose range of 1–10 mg/ml in isolated guinea pig ileum.[36] REFERENCES WHO. IUCN and WWF: Guidelines on the conservation of medicinal plants, IUCN Gland, Switzerland 1993; 1:4-6 WHO. Quality control guidelines for medicinal plant materials. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2008. Fabricant DS, Farnsworth NR. The Value of Plants Used in Traditional Medicine for Drug Discovery. Environ Health Perspect 2001;109: 69-75. Harvey A. The place of natural products in drug discovery. Drug Plus Int. 2004; 3: 6-8. Nadkarni KM. Indian Materia Medica, Ist Vol., Bombay, India: Popular Prakashan; 1976: 1036-37. Pulliah T. Encyclopedia of World Medicinal Plants. India: Regency; 2006: 1620-1621. Bhattacharjee SK. Hand Book of Aromatic Plants, 1st ed., Jodhpur, India: Popular Offset Service Pvt. Ltd; 2000:119–471 WHO. Medicinal Plants in The Republic Of Korea. Manila: World Health Organization; 1998. The Wealth of India (Raw Material), New Delhi: Council of Industrial and scientific Research; 2005; 8: 274-79. Kirtikar KR, Basu BD. Indian medicinal plants with illustrations. Dehradun, India: Oriental Enterprises; 2003: 1334-37. Fukuda T, Ito H, Mukainaka T, Tokuda H, Nishino H, Yoshida T. Anti- tumor promoting effect of glycosides from Prunus persica seeds. Biol. Pharm. Bull. 2003; 26(2): 271-273. Ministry of Health and Welfare, â€Å"The Japanese Pharmacopoeia 14th Edition,† ed. by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, Tokyo, Japan; 2001:803-806. Takenaga A, Ito S, Tsuyuki H, Nippon Shokuhin Kogyo Gakkaishi 1982; 29:724-729. Kosuge T, Ishida H, Ishii M. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 1985; 33:1496-1498. Morishige H, Ida Y, Shoji J. Shoyakugaku Zasshi 1983; 37: 46-51. Fujisaki M, Ishizawa K. Symposia on Enzyme Chem. 1952; 7: 95. Rho JR, Jun CS, Ha YA, Yoo MJ, Cui MX, Baek HS, et al. Isolation and Characterization of a New Alkaloid from the Seed of Prunus persica L. and its anti-inflammatory activity. Bull. Korean Chem. Soc. 2007; 28 (8):1289. Raturi R, Sati SC, Singh H, Sati MD, Bahuguna P, Badoni PP et al. Chemical examination and anti-inflammatoty activity of Prunus Persica stem bark. Int. J. Pharm. Sci. 2011; 3 (5):315-317. Duke JA. Handbook of Phytochemical Constituents of GRAS Herbs and Other Economic Plants. Florida: CRC Press; 1992:488-490. Hekai R, Weiliang J, Xianglong S. Study on chemical components of the essential oils from Prunus persica and P. davidiana. Chinese Tradit. Patent Med. 1992; 14: 33-34. RC Srivastava Nyishi Community. Traditional knowledge of Nyishi (Daffla) tribe of Arunachal Pradesh. Indian J. Tradit. Know. 2007; 9 (1):26- 37. Abbasi AM, Kham MA, Ahmed M, Zafar M. Herbal medicine used to cure various ailments by the inhabitants of Abbottabad district, North West Frontier Province, Pakistan. Indian J. Tradit. Know. 2010; 9(1):175-183. Hussain F, Shah SM, Sher H. Traditional Resource Evaluation of Some Plants Of Mastuj, District Chitral, Pakistan. Pak J. Bot. 2007; 39(2):3339-54. Nidal A. Jaradat. Medical Plants Utilized in Palestinian Folk Medicine for Treatment of Diabetes Mellitus and Cardiac diseases. J. Al-Aqsa Unv. 2005;9:1-28. Singh VK, Ali ZA, Siddiqui MK. Folk medicinal plants of the Garhwal and Kumaon forests of Uttar Pradesh, India. Hamd Med. 1997;40:35-47. Abbasi AM, Khan MA, Ahmad M, Zafar M, Jahan S, Sultana S. Ethnopharmacological application of medicinal plants to cure skin diseases and in folk cosmetics among the tribal communities of North-West Frontier Province, Pakistan. J. Ethnopharmacol. 2010;128:322-335. Sharma J, Painuli RM. Plants used for the treatment of Rheumatism by the Bhoxba tribe of District Dehradun, Uttarkhand, India. Int. J. Med. Arom. Plants 2011;1:28-32. Hussain A, Khan MN, Iqbal Z, Sajid MS. An account of the botanical anthelmintics used in traditional veterinary practices in Sahiwal district of Punjab, Pakistan. J. Ethnopharmacol. 2008;119:185-190. Akhtar, MS. Anthelmintic evaluation of indigenous medicinal plants for veterinary usage-final research report (1983–1988). Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan.1988. The Useful Plants of India, Fifth Reprint. New Delhi: NISCAIR; 2006:496. Deb L, Tripathi A, Bhowmik D, Dutta AS, Kumar KPS. Anti-inflammatory activity of N-Butanol Fraction Of Prunus Persica L aqueous extract. The Pharma Res. 2010; 4:74-78. Shin TY, Park SB, Yoo JS, Kim IK, Lee HS, Kwond TK, et al. Anti-allergic inflammatory activity of the fruit of Prunus persica: Role of calcium and NF-jB. Food Chem. Toxicol. 2010; 48: 2797–2802. Han S, Park KK, Chung WY, Lee SK, Kim J, Hwang JK. Antiphotoaging effect of 2- methoxy-5-(2-methyl propyl) pyrazine isolated from peach (Prunus persica (L) Batsch). Food Sci. Biotechnol. 2010;19(6):1667-1671. Heoa MY, Kima SH, Yang HE, Lee SH, Jo BK, Kima HP. Protection against ultraviolet B and C-induced DNA damage and skin carcinogenesis by the flowers of Prunus persica extract. Mutat Res. 2001;496:47-59. Kim YH, Yang HE, Park BK, Heo MY, Jo BK, Kim HP et al. The extract of the flowers of Prunus persica, a new cosmetic ingredient, protects against solar ultraviolet-induced skin damage in vivo. J. Cosmet Sci. 2002;53:27-34. Gilani AH, Aziz N, Ali SM, Saeed M. Pharmacological basis for the use of peach leaves in constipation. J Ethnopharmacol. 2000;73:87-93.

Monday, January 20, 2020

Essays on Death and Suicide - Death of My Father :: Example Personal Narratives

Death of My Father The most significant and life changing experience in my life was when my dad died two years ago. It really awakened me to how the world works and how fragile life is. I remember the day perfectly. I was working with my guitar teacher, George at Nick Rail Music, when my dad passed away in a car crash at Mussel Shoals. Later we learned that his heart had stopped while he was driving on the freeway due to an infection in his heart. Therefore his car went out of control when he lost consciousness, and drifted into the oncoming traffic. Unbeknownst to my mom and me, we went home and I went to my friend Land's house, who lived downstairs in the condo complex that we lived in at the time. We spent the entire afternoon together and surprisingly my mom didn't even call me up for dinner, so I stayed with them and we had a barbecue. I remember sitting on the bench eating a grilled Portobello mushroom, relaxing with Land and his parents, and thinking how great life was. After dinner Land's mom went off somewhere, I wasn't sure where, but I just figured she went for a Pepsi run as usual. I stayed and listened to music while Land worked on his guitar. Then I got the expected call to go back upstairs. So I said goodnight and went on my way. My mom sounded lost and very calm on the phone, not her usual happy self. Wondering what was happening I slowly opened the door to see my mom and Land's mom, Carol, sitting together on the blue and white couches. My mom asked me to sit down, so I sat between them while my mother began to explain how my dad had been in a car accident earlier that afternoon. "His car veered into the oncoming traffic and was hit from the side...he didn't survive." I remember at that moment Carol clenching my shoulder so much it hurt, but I was numb to the pain, we all were. I didn't cry. None of us did. We were unable to comprehend how this could possibly be true. My dad had gone to work that morning seemingly fine.

Saturday, January 11, 2020

Is College Too Stressful?

College is a life changing experience for any person that wants to continue their learning experience, and since this is such a momentous occasion there are adjustments that must be made by students in order to succeed in college. With such drastic changes people going to college will be put under stress, and they will have to make certain decisions to make their college experience a doable one. Even though college tends to be stressful for student it should not be overwhelming or cause a student to break down and give up because it is too hard.Yes, college is very challenging at times, but is it too much of a challenge to where students will put under major amounts of stress and will break down from the constant flow of homework and readings that the professors assign? The answer to this question is no, college does not put too much stress on students because if a student is willing to make the right choices and sacrifice their effort and time then college would not be stressful. â €Å"Stress is a feeling that's created when we react to particular events.It's the body's way of rising to a challenge and preparing to meet a tough situation†¦Ã¢â‚¬  This is how Teen Heath, an online article on defining what causes stress, describes what stress is. There are two different types of stress and they are good stress and bad stress. Good stress â€Å"tends to inspire us to rise to a challenge, so that we discover and experience more of our potential,† (Good Stress vs. Bad Stress paragraph 2), while bad stress, â€Å"leaves us feeling depleted and anxious† (Good Stress vs. Bad Stress paragraph 2). Most college students usually feel overwhelmed because they are not managing their time correctly and are doing everything at the last minute. If a college student has excellent time management and is responsible to make correct decisions then college will be less challenging and will promote good stress in their lives. Having good time management skills is very important when going to college because of excess homework and readings that are assigned by professors.In college a student has a lot of free time for doing homework because college classes are more of a lecture style setting, so students are usually taught what they supposed to know for the homework during class and given time outside of class to do the homework. Giving different classes a specific amount of committed hours will help with procrastination and a student will be able to organize when homework and study hours will be for each class. Having awareness of what your goals are will assist you in prioritizing your activities,† (Managing Your Time paragraph 1) if a student has a plan of attack of how they are going to complete their homework goals then they will be successful. Responsibility is also another key role in being successful for college and having a good stress environment.College students have a lot of freedom because most college students do not live with their parents, so there is no one to wake them up for class, telling them when to do their homework, or anyone to tell them when it’s time for them to go to bed. In college, you will have†¦ a great deal of freedom and flexibility,† (Managing Your Time paragraph 1) students must take the initiative to do what they know is right in order to accomplish their goal of doing well in college. There are many parties that happen on campus grounds and sometimes the partying will affect a student’s consistency of going to class because they partied too hard and were not able to get up for class, or they went to class and were too tired to focus.Then there are instances where a student is not consistent with their homework because they did not feel like doing it. Without parents as a constant reminder students need to adapt. Also, having too many class hours can hinder a student from being successful in college. A student must know what their maximum work load is, so they can take on the homework that the professors assign to them while still getting good grades. Many students tend to take on way more class hours than they are capable of causing them to feel very stressed out and hopeless.If a student does take on too many hours then they will end up having to sacrifice other classes in order to manage a decent grade for a harder class. Then some students take classes that they are under qualified for and then they end up struggling because they do not meet the credentials of that class. A student must know their limits in order to flourish in a college atmosphere. College can be very stressful for students because of some indirect causes from a student’s personal life.For example, a student might become very ill and is unable to attend class and they fall behind in class. If this were to happen then the student must communicate to their professor that they are struggling and they need help catching up. Professors tend to be very unde rstanding of a student falls behind in class as long as the student is telling the professor what is going on. Then there are scenarios where people have no choice but to take upper level classes within the same time frame because what degree they are majoring in makes it hard for them to spread out difficult classes.Also, some college students have children and that makes it harder for them to manage their time with doing homework from professors because they have to take care of their child first. Sometimes colleges do have professors that are very unreasonable with giving ludicrous amounts of homework and are not willing to make it manageable for students to succeed in their class, and if this scenario does happen then the student should either drop that class and take another time, or just try and find a different professor to take the class with.There are ways to make college less stressful if it is too stressful on a student as long as they communicate with their advisors or p rofessors. College may seem stressful because of poor time management, a student took too many classes, and the lack of responsibility that some students tend to have. With poor time management a student will be unorganized and will not be able to succeed because there is no routine for them to follow thus making it hard for the student to have a time slot for when they will study for test or do homework for a class.Also, students are liable to take on too many class hours and not have enough time to put in the effort of studying therefore they have to sacrifice one class over the other just to make ends meet. When a student goes off to college there is a lot of freedom because they are away from their parents and there is no one to tell them when to do their homework, so instead of focusing on studies they might go out with friends and reap the consequences of not doing their homework on time and not study for a test. College is stressful because students make it stressful with unw ise decisions that are made.

Friday, January 3, 2020

Factors That Determine The Quality Of Health And Wellbeing...

There is not singe factor that determine the quality of health and wellbeing. Many intersecting social and individual factors control the societies health. Income inequality is one of the leading determinant for our health. The effects of income inequality on health maybe understood by examining some social mechanisms, such as public education and healthcare, structural violence, disruption of social cohesion and social capital; and individual risky behaviors. (Kawachi and Kennedy, 1999) My topic is income inequality and health because access to adequate income have a significant effect on people’s health and well-being. I chose this topic because I personally know how income inequality makes poor sick in the first place and how difficult it is to get better once the poor people get sick. My grandfather had diabetes he had passed away at relatively younger age. He was only 64 when he died. At the time I was only thinking that his diabetes is genetic. Now, I know that his life condition is also a factor on his diabetes. I also know that he would live much longer if he had a better income which would provide him access to better housing, healthy food, and better living conditions. I also chose Income inequality and health as my topic after I watched the documentary â€Å"Unnatural Causes in Sickness and in Wealth† for the class. In the documentary, the example of an identical twins was given. The identical twin sisters have the same genes, they grew up t ogether until the age ofShow MoreRelatedMental Health And The Wellbeing Essay1570 Words   |  7 PagesIntroduction Mental health and well-being will be explored in depth in two frames. One frame relating to James who has been demonstrating mental health and wellbeing issues in a school context. The second frame relates to mental health and wellbeing. 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