Sunday, March 31, 2019

Overview of Disease Diagnoses Processes

Overview of Disease Diagnoses ProcessesAlejandra MedinillaTASK 1The armorial bearing of this work is to cover the whole process of affection diagnoses. In medicine, live diametrical ways to disunite illnesss as comfortably as un wish well test and procedures to diagnose them. The world wellness organization (WHO) plays a precise key role here since they created normalized mixtures of diseases and disabilities, with circumstantial codes to describe each of them with the intent of simplify and standardize the process of diagnose 1.2. We be outlet to check the two well-nigh important models of wellness, apply in medicine to exc use of goods and services infirmity. They help to predict and identify risks and consequences, capture decisions and reduce the possibility of occurrent of an illness.Diseases base be classified in different ways, depending on the criteria interpreted into account duration, distri saveion, pathology and aetiology are some examples. They are important in the compilation of statistics on causes of illness (morbidity) and causes of death (mortality).The just about apply salmagundis split illnesses depending on the organs affected, nature and causes of the disease, risk of contagious and communicable and the event and frequency of it. According to the British encyclopedia these classifications are 1) topographic, (2) anatomic (3) physiological, (4) diseased (5) etiologic (6) juristic, (7) epidemiological and (8) statistical. (Stanley L. Robbins, Jonathan H. Robbins, Dante G. Scarpelli. 2013. Classifications of diseases online. Available at http//www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/275628/ gentleman-disease/63272/Classifications-of-diseases)The WHO has a genuinely important role in classifying disease. They stupefy the WHO Family of internationalist Classifications (WHO-FIC), with the ICD and ICF as heart and soul classifications.They are call the Normalized Classifications and are based on professional and scie ntific criteria.The International Classification of Diseases (ICD) is a classification that uses different codes to differentiate signals, signs and illnesses. This classification al low-toneded a global standardization making easier the diagnostic process. Each illness is classifying trough a code of 5 characters.The last version is the tenth, ICD-10, created in 1992. The 11th revision is running until 2015.The another(prenominal) classification created by the WHO is the ICF, which complements the ICD. This classification has two parts. One refers to functionality and dis mogul and the other to conceptual factors.Both classify of the different states of illness/wellness within a standardize framework, with specific codes.On the other hand, much habitually speaking, in 1997 was created the triangle of health. It classifies health, into social, mental or somatogenetic making emphasis on the immensity of the three states together.We do-nothing define as Physical wellness, to the ashes health it refers to optimal weigh, vision, a healthy skin, and beads, tissues and organs, a good dental train and a good neuro-muscular coordination. A person with corporeal health must(prenominal) able to do all his routine workwithout any touchyy. To evaluate the physical health of a person we bum focus in different areas like life style (drug abuse, alcohol and tabaco habits, rule-governed exercise, medical checkups), human biology (genetic and body chemistry), environment (the air we breathe and where we live) and medical operate ( to prevent, detect and treat diseases). rational health refers to the state of mind. It is the capability that a person has to manage stress and tension of daily life and keep up a good attitude. Personal relationships with family and friends are a key flavour when trying to evaluate a persons mental health. Mental health is essential requirement to make judgments, to possess discretion and to formula and overcome the probl ems.The worldly concern wellness Organization describes Mental wellness as the state of well- world in which the individual realizes his or her own abilities, tramp cope with the normal stresses of life, can work productively and fruitfully, and is able to make a contribution to his or her community. (WHO. December 2013. Mental health a state of well-being online. Available at http//www.who.int/features/factfiles/mental_health/en/)And last, Social Health which is the ability to function in society. It is in the ability to build un occasional and constructive relationships with peers. The social network of a person is a pivotal indicator. Having no friends could lead to depression being more prone to pellucid physical problems. In contrast, a person with strong relationships will step more supported and accompanied.As a resume, a person could birth a very good physical health, making exercises every day, slang in healthy food and doing regular checkups with the doctor, but, if the person moves away from friends and social events to economise this condition, this means luck of social health and could lead him to mental health problems in the future.In the process of diagnoses and establishing health and disease it is important to live with knowledge and at a lower placestanding of the Health interrogation methods.Health look into has been define as the process for obtaining systematic knowledge and technology which can be used for the improvement of the health of individual groups. (Davies 1991, cited in A. Bowling 2002, p.3)Health investigate methods are used to obtain the necessary information to develop new tools and procedures that help to protect flock from diseases or recover from them.Classifications of question methods are based on different criteria. Dankhe classification (1989) proposed 4 types of research studies exploratory, descriptive, correlational and explanatory.In general depending on the role of the researcher we can have ob servational or experimental methods according to the time when the selective information is collected or measured, prospective or retrospective according to the do of occasions on which the variable is measured in the study, transversal or longitudinal and according to the number of variables under study, descriptive or analytic. experimental studies are prospective studies they evaluate the effect of one or more interventions. Frequently used in the assessment of therapeutic drugs and therapeutic interventions, being really careful with the ethic limits. They can be applied to the probe of preventive measures of the disease, seeking to reduce individual risk. An example is the study that evaluates the posture of a vaccine. On the other hand observational studies are those in which the tolerant is not assigned to an specific treatment or intervention, the rating is carried out according to a standard clinical practice, being therefore the researcher an observer of what is happ ening or has happened.Research involves a cabal between the different types of research. Research methods are used in conjunction.As the WHO suggest another way of classifying health research is to describe it under three operational interlinked categories of biomedical, health services and behavioral research, the so-called health research triangle (WHO. 2001. Health research methodology. Chapter 1, p. 3)Multi-dimensional approaches are available for evaluating outcomes research. In evaluating research outcomes it is important to measure effectiveness, acceptability and humanity, equity and accessibility and efficiency.The paygrade of the data is made using the scientific method, and the collection of research data. rating can be divided into two types formative and summative.Formative paygrade is carried out during the investigation process. It aims to improve the methodology concentrating on the strengths and weaknesses.On the other hand, Summative evaluation takes place at t he end of the process. It determines achievement and other outcomes, to evaluate the continuity or not of the process or program.thither are different ways to disseminate the results of a research. As a general rule it is better to plan at the beginning of the research which is going to be the dissemination strategies. It should be consider the goals and objectives of the dissemination, as well as the impact, the Audience, the Medium to best reach each the audience and the public presentation process.Ones we have the results of an investigation we need to concentrate in how they are going to be disclosed. The options are diverse, depending on the public we penury to focus on.The more or less ballpark and generally used is the publication of texts, could as scientific papers, in specialize magazines, newspapers or posters, leaflets and advertising for a more general public.In the field of health exist different Principles of Health modeling. Models are a simplification of reality . They help to predict, identify risks and consequences, make decisions and reduce the burden of illness.We can course credit 2 important models, the Biomedical and the Biopsychosocial models. Both are theories that justify illness from different perspectives.The biomedical model assumes that disease is a recreation from normal biological functioning and biological mechanisms are sufficient to beg off disease, excluding psychological and social processes. It is a reductionist and single-factor model it reduces illness to low processes, such as disordered cells and chemical imbalances, and explains illness in term of a biological malfunction.We can say that the Body was treated as a machine Physical disease is measured by the absence seizure of health. It is the one used to develop the classification of diseases.On the other hand, the holistic or biopsychosocial model includes biological, psychological, and social factors as important determinants of health and illness.It maint ains that health and illness are caused by multiple factors and produce multiple effects. So it is a multicausal model. Mind and body cannot be distinguished in matters of health and illness because both mould the state of health.The perception of wellbeing is see by different factors. There are psychological and social factors that influence the development of illness, and these are ignored by the biomedical model since it take into account just the physical aspects of the problem.TASK 2It is important to mention the difference between Diseases and indispositiones. A disease is a pathological condition of the body in response to disruption of homeostasis. It is a result of pathogens, trauma, physical and chemical agents, genetics (inheritance), metabolic or nutritional disorders, while an Illness is the condition of a person experiencing disease.In order to establish peoples health we need to follow different procedures and make various tests to be able to give diagnoses. Before we can glide by with a specific test or group of tests we need to look the Signs and omens the patient presents.Signs can be define as any indication of a medical condition that can be objectively observed and unremarkably they have no meaning to the patient or they not even notice them. Signs can be detected during a physical examination. steep blood pressure is an example. 2.2Symptoms on the other hand are recognized, go through and referred by the patients. The patient feels something anomalous in his body. Examples of symptoms can be, feeling tired, low mood and energy, anxiety, nausea, dizziness, and drowsiness. Symptoms become key elements when any health professional want to make a diagnosis to a patient and give him treatment.As examples to crystalize we can mention three examples. In the case of a headache, the patient is the only one capable to notice it so, it is a symptom if we talk about blood pressure, this could only be a signs, since it demand to be measured by a doctor in a laboratory and the one that could be both, a sign and a symptom is a rush.Ones we have observe and checked the signs and symptoms we are able to proceed with the correspondent diagnostic process.The diagnostic process includes all types of measurements and tests that are used to evaluate a patients condition, such as physiological measurements, laboratory tests and pathology tests, visualise tests and endoscopies. 2.1Each form of diagnosis involves specific procedures and tests that we can summarize asLaboratory tests blood test, urine, and/or other body fluids. They are used to evaluate what is going on in the body and also in specific cases like cancer treatment, to evaluate the side effects like anaemia and neutropenia (low white blood cell count), which can increase the risk of infection. 2.1Endoscopic tests is a procedure performed with an endoscope (a flexible and very thin tobacco pipe with a camera) to examine the inside of the body. The endoscope model va ries depending on the part of the body that is going to be examined.Biopsy is the removal of tissue, a very small hail to be examined under a microscope. There are different types of biopsies beauteous needle aspiration biopsy, Core needle biopsy, Vacuum-assisted biopsy, Image-guided biopsy and surgical biopsy. 2.1Imaging tests X-ray, bone scan, CT or CAT scan, Positron emission tomography (PET) scan, magnetic resonance imaging and Ultrasound. 2.1In practice, Multiple Tests are used. Choices depend on cost, invasiveness, volume of test, front man and capability of lab infrastructure, urgency, etc.As an example, to diagnose cancer the most common types of tests used are biopsy, imaging tests, endoscopic tests and laboratory tests.It is important to know that a disease could be developed in a normal or an abnormal way. That is the field of etiology, which in medicine refers to the factors approach together to cause a disease.As mention previously, a disease can have a normal or an abnormal aetiology. To clarify this concept we can observe the development of Diabetes. In general it could be describe as a chronic disease that occurs when the body loses the ability to produce enough insulin or use it effectively.We can divide this disease in 2 main groups. The start-off one includes the types of diabetes with normal aetiology and the second one with abnormal aetiology.In the 1st group (normal aetiology), the common forms of diabetes are fictitious character 1 diabetes (T1D, known as insulin-dependent diabetes or IDDM) and Type 2 diabetes.In Type 1, the pancreatic cells produce little or no insulin. Its causes are not precisely known but are believed to be an autoimmune reaction. It can occur at any age, but usually occurs before the age of 30.Type 2 diabetes (T2D), known as non-insulin-dependent diabetes (NIDDM) usually develops slowly over time. Most people with this disease are overweight at the time of diagnosis. The increment of body fat makes it difficul t for the body to use insulin the right way. It can also occur in thin people and are more common in the elderly. It is the most common form of diabetes. 2.3The 2nd group involves the types of diabetes with abnormal aetiology. In general these types present a gene mutation and some grade of inheritance. We can mention MODY (Maturity onset diabetes of the young) and GDM (Gestational diabetes).(MODY) is a rare form of diabetes that runs strongly in families. It is caused by an inherited genetic defect, an autosomal inheritance (3 generations of the same family affected) of the insulin-producing cells. aft(prenominal) the Type 1 diabetes it is the most frequency type within infants.GDM is first developed during pregnancy, usually appears in mid-pregnancy. The body cannot produce or use enough insulin. It is of very high risk for the pregnancy, so it needs to be controlled. Gestational diabetes can be controlled with a healthy diet and regular exercise, but sometimes the mother will al so need insulin. unremarkably it disappears after delivery, but the mother has more risks of developing diabetes type 2 in the future.BIBLIOGRAPHYBowling, Ann. Research methods in health investigating health and health services 2nd ed. Open University Press, Buckingham Philadelphia.David Blane, Mel Bartley, George Davey Smith Disease aetiology and materialist explanations of socioeconomic mortality differentials Inequities in health European Journal of Public Health. 1997 7 3S5-391D. A. Collier and J. L. Treasure, The aetiology of eating disorders. British Journal of Psychiatry (2004), 185, 363-365Donald M. Steinwachs, Ronda G. Hughes, Chapter 8. Health Services Research Scope and Significance. Patient Safety and Quality An Evidence-Based handbook for Nurses Vol. 1Institute of Alcohol Studies (2007) Alcohol and Mental Health.L Rychetnik, M Frommer, P Hawe, A Shiell, Criteria for evaluating evidence on public health interventions. J Epidemiol Community Health 2002 56119127Ross an d Wilson (2006), Anatomy and Physiology in health and illness, 10th edition Elsevier.R Bonita, R Beaglehole, T Kjellstrm, Basic epidemiology, WHO, 2nd edition.Saffrey and Stewart (eds) (2001) Maintaining The unharmed benevolent Biology and Health Book 3, The Open University, Chapter 7.The World health organization (2001) Mental health new understanding, new hope.Tortora (2003) Introduction to the Human Body The essentials of Anatomy and Physiology, 4th Edition, Wiley Sons.Hawkes, C. (2002) Globalization, Diets and Noncommunicable Diseases, World Health Organization.WHO, Health Research Methodology A guide for training in research methods. Second Edition. WHO, Regional Office for the Western Pacific, Manila, 2001.World Health Organization, 2001. ICF International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health. WHO, Geneve.WHO (1993) The ICD-10 Classification of Mental and Behavioural Disorders. Diagnostic Criteria for research. WHO, Geneva.World Health Organization (2002) Globalization, Diets and Noncommunicable Diseases.

Social Networking Sites Analysis

cordial Networking Sites AnalysisSocial Networking Sites atomic number 18 progressively becoming hot, attracting the attention of millions of exploiters by functioning like an online community. These sites ar electronic vane ground work that every(prenominal)ow individuals to create a public/ clubby write on i or more sites. Users once registered preserve input their personal data including photos and videos. This then allows them to interact with former(a) substance abusers with whom they motive to portion out a common interest or view point. soon in that location are thousands of different well-disposed networking sites operating worldwide that prolong a variety of features aimed at an assortment of different subject conferences. in that respectfore the loving networking sites works by requireing profiles of users who are registered. Once they collect learning, this data is open to other members of the group or community for which the user is registered.INT RODUCTIONInternet is considered as a part of our life in todays world. Through internet, populate quarter interact with other person from anywhere in the world. There are no divisional and setbacks to prevent people from interacting. Social networking websites are very popular nowadays especially in spite of appearance teenagers. Millions of users incorporate these sites into their daily lives by checking their profile several times a day and steriliseting updates from friends and families time to time. Al nigh all the online users are members of both one or more cordial networking websites. In my own words, I would describe these sites as an online utility that enables users to communicate actively with other members and friends by allowing individuals to set up an account and describing his/her own interests. Once the account is created, users are then able to government agency personal instruction including photographs, videos and blog entries in their account. The way u ser interacts with other person depends on features that each social networking websites offer. both(prenominal) of those features include instant messaging, video calling, chatting, emails, blogging, group discussions, file overlap and so on.The social networking websites are classified into different categories. While most of the sites are based on general calculate, some of the sites are based on specific theme. A few of these categories are discussed below.Category 1 General InterestThese sites are for general purpose where a user foot salve contact with old friend, or submit a new friend. These sites also enable user to comment on other member messages/views. Below are some of the top general purpose sites.Facebook This site allows users to turn out contact with friends, family around them. Currently facebook is most popular networking site among teenagers.Orkut Similar to facebook, Orkut also provides its users to meet new friends and of importtain animated relations hips. This website is owned by Google Inc.Twitter This website enables its users to send and read other user messages called tweets. This site is sometimes described as the SMS of the internet.Category 2 special InterestThese sites are based on specific themes which are aimed at certain kinds of groups. Below are some of the theme based network sites.LinkedIn It is a business-oriented network where members invite people to be connections instead of friends. This is in general used for professional networking. The purpose of this website is to allow its users to maintain a arguing of contact details of people they know and trust in business. It piece of ass then be used to find jobs, people and business opportunities recommended by someone in ones contact network. Employers use these sites to post job vacancies in their companies.Last.fm This networking site is based on Music. Registered Users allow for be able to post in the Last.fm forums, send and receive private messages an d use the Last.fm client medical specialty player.Flixster This is a social movie site allowing users to share movie ratings, signalize new movies and meet others with similar movie taste.Benefits of Social Networking WebsitesUsing social networking sites, we can develop friendship with people online all around the world. non only we can make new friends but we will pop an opportunity to learn about new languages, cultures of other countries. Social networking websites broadly involves either specific individuals or organizations together. For individuals, these sites provide bust ways to keep in mote with friends, families. Also one can increase their group of contacts that can go beyond geographical and cultural differences as they can meet people who share your interests from almost all sides of world. We can share messages within seconds with the person sitting at distant places. One can also create and share blogs with friends and families by providing links to them.Thus , social networking sites have been quite effective in facilitating making new friends or alter old friend after years of lack of communications. Hence social networking sites can be great way to stay in touch with large groups of people.On the other side, businesses and organizations can use these sites to promote their websites, products and services widely. News channels provide updates to public with recent and up-to-date watchword about events and activities around the world.Disadvantages of Social Networking WebsitesEven though there are lot of advantages of these sites, there are dangers also associated with this. The main consequence will be identity theft and fraud of personal data which is on rise. The names, addresses, email ids, age and so on are personal information that a user can give out and fraudsters use this information in performing illegal activities. There are also more people who pretend to be someone else and are using these sites to make a business deal. But the truth is that they will rob funds out of another user.Another danger would be meeting strangers online. The main concern from these people is online harassment. They use the information available on users profile.Some pull wires advertisements can invite users to unwanted viruses to their computers.Nowadays, professional companies are referring online profile while judging people at the time of interviews.ConclusionSocial networking sites are an online community that has users registered from all around the world. As seen above there are both pros and cons from using this sites.Therefore one must be very careful while providing personal data online. Nowadays all the social networking websites are offering an option of privacy. By using this option, one can restrict the entry of unwanted users and unknown users.We may get many requests for adding as friends or joining different communities. It is always better to know as much as information about them forward adding anyone as friend or joining any community. Otherwise there is a possibility that we may become a victim of fake identity which may spoil your image.

Saturday, March 30, 2019

‘Nature Versus Nurture’ as Predictors of Happiness

Nature Versus Nurture as Predictors of HappinessPauline Tovee save a critical discussion es tell in response to the followers task, based on your close reading of any 5 of the ecstasy source texts, texts 1 10Draw on any five of the ten sources texts, discuss the relative importance of character versus nurture as predictors of happinessThis assignment will discuss the relative importance of nature versus nurture as predictors of happiness. The assignment will similarly comp be and personal line of credit all sides of the equation and discuss which is the most important as a predictor of happiness nature or nurture or whether both(prenominal) pass water a bearing on happiness. The stance taken in this assignment is that neither nature or nurture john conform to the role of a unity predictor, and that the combining of both the genetic and environmental factors, contribute to happiness. Defining happiness is non an easy task to accomplish. However, it tail be argued that a simple definition of happiness is a one of positivity which covers a whole range of feelings or emotions, from pleasure to gratification. (Spoors et al, as cited in text edition 2, L185, 2014).On one hand, with regard to nature, it has been argued a healthy lifestyle equates to a happy brain. Sugar has also been explored as having an important role deep down our brains and bodies, to keep a stable cadence available continuously. The blood sugar within ones form fluctuates throughout the day thus when the sugar level is at its spinning top one feels elated or happy within ones mood span. However, when ones blood sugar level has decimated to a low level, moods can intensify to one of irritability and tiredness, thus the cells do not get enough of the chemicals they require to function correctly.Then again, it has also been debated, brain activity is also a way of gauging happiness by simply inquiring of mint on how happy that were at a particular time, though this is not speci fically accurate. If two masses say they are comparatively happy, one can still not be accepted that both individuals are, in reality, encountering exactly the same intensity of happiness. A procedure used by Davidson, with the use of an electroencephalograph (EEG), measures action within the brain, including split of the brain which are not active. The active part of the brain produces electrical pulses. These are selected by the electrodes located on the head. However, what Davidson did discover was that in people who stated they were feeling happy and cheerful, the action in the frontal range of the brain, on the left-hand side was more active. When pessimistic thoughts were portrayed, there was more action in the frontal area of the brain on the right side. (Spoors et al, as cited in text 3, L185, 2014)However, nurture can also sportswoman its role in the pursuit of happiness with respect to social influences. masses who are loved and valued by their families are more apparent to have happy dispositions than those who are undervalued and exploited by their conflicting roles within the family circle. People who are involved within formal occupations or those who utilisation in the home, for example those who study, care for others (including children) and those who work taking care of the home, can each form a foundation of happiness. Work does not provided provide people with financial support, but can also devolve people a sense of achievement and add meaning to their lives. calamus Warr (2007) equates employment to having ones daily dose of vitamins, a certain amount of which is need for wellbeing and health. Richard Layard (2008) claims Unemployment (in the broadest sense) can reduce happiness by destroying self-respect and the positive social relationships created by workIn addition, researchers in psychology claim people who live in western confederation are, by and large, more happy than those in other societies in a survey taken of approximately 80,000 people in over 178 die countries. Adrian White created a happiness level of these countries. At the highest position was Denmark which was trailed well-nigh by Switzerland, Austria and Iceland. However, countries such as Zimbabwe and Burundi were the least happiest countries. Researchers have suggested people who are living in countries whose economy is developing, whitethorn well have more amounts of happiness, which clearly define the feeling of contentment than, for example, those who live in western societies. Further research done by the New political economy Foundation in 2006, discovered that the Pacific Island of Vanuatu, was purported to be the happiest nation on Earth, even though it is one of the poorest countries. (Spoors et al, as cited in Text 6, L185, 2014).In comparison, the question can be asked time and time again are we the product of either our genes or simply of our environment, the physical, social and also the cultural? As Phoenix argue s, Whilst psychological debates are often presented as dichotomies (fixidty versus change nature versus nurture), these debates should not be seen as requiring either/or choices (Phoenix, A. 2007, as cited in Text 1, L185, 2014)From evidence available, being naturally happy (by nature) and a in a nurturing (environment and experience) happiness, can influence peoples happiness. Research has shown that twins who are indistinguishable (have identical genes) are more comparable in their levels of happiness, than a set of twins who do not have the same identical genes. Layard argues Scientists have shown that our family relationships are more important than any other single factor affecting our happiness. (Layard, 2005). whitethornbe the fundamental message is that the volume of people, irrespective of their genes or their environment, are able to take the key move to expand their levels of contentment, for example happiness and their emotional wellbeing. Happiness does not only come from outside influences and our environment, but also from within ones self. Neither of the two is in conflict with each other. The true pilgrim fights the evils of the homo out there and cultivates the spirit within (Layard, 2005 as cited in L185, Text 7).In conclusion the evidence indicates that although nature and nurture do happen an important role within ones dreams of happiness, they are not separate in that role. The influence of each position contributes to happiness as a whole. It is not easy to define happiness completely what may be complete contentment for one person is not the same for another, for we are all different in our genetic makeup and our environment and general upbringing.Word Count 1025ReferencesThe Open University (2012), L185, English for pedantic Purposes, EMA, Text 1 Avoiding Dichotomies in Psychological Thinking onlinehttps//learn2.open.ac.uk/mod/oucontent/view.php?id=302192section=3.2 (accessed 17 may 2014)The Open University (2012), L185, English for Academic Purposes, EMA, Text 2 What Makes Us clever? online https//learn2.open.ac.uk/mod/oucontent/view.php?id=302192section=3.2 (accessed 17 May 2014)The Open University (2012), L185, English for Academic Purposes, EMA, Text 3 What Makes Us quick-witted Happy Brains onlinehttps//learn2.open.ac.uk/mod/oucontent/view.php?id=302192section=3.3 (accessed 17 May 2014)The Open University (2012), L185, English for Academic Purposes, EMA, Text 6 What Makes Us Happy Social Influences onlinehttps//learn2.open.ac.uk/mod/oucontent/view.php?id=302192section=3.6 (accessed 17 May 2014)The Open University (2012), L185, English for Academic Purposes, EMA, Text 7 Naturally Happy and Nurturing Happiness onlinehttps//learn2.open.ac.uk/mod/oucontent/view.php?id=302192section=3.7 (accessed 17 May 2014)

Womens Virginity And Fidelity Sociology Essay

Womens Virginity And Fidelity Sociology Essay crumbvass and ad hominem line of credit the significance of the image womens virginity and belieffulness betwixt the Qing Dynasty and Contemporary chinaw atomic come up 18, with an campaign to analyse the causes of varied attitudes and behaviours in these 2 different dates.AbstractThis require focuses on the Chinese womens worth, specially in the atomic number 18a of Virginity and Fidelity. The resemblance and tell mingled with Qing Dynasty and Contemporary china is examined, with an attempt to find out(p) what doable causes had direct to the different perspectives on womens purity.Qing is regarded as an idol of womens uprightness in the entire Chinese news report. However, it seemed that the modern spring chicken tend to cargon subtile some(prenominal)what womens virginity and faithfulness. Women seemed no longer devote their entire lives to serve their husbands and in-laws. asunder from the changes in t he regions of culture, globalization, and development, the historical progress can non be ignored as hale as governmental policiesIntroductionWith the emergence of the first sex museum for women in chinaw ar, the perception of sex has begun to attract more(prenominal) attentions of Chinese people ( china Daily, 2008). Meanwhile, the images women play over centuries gift decisively contri unlessed to the historical progress of sex. Since ancient China, women are often regarded as a property of men in the antique ball club (Jaschok and Miers, 1994). accord to Marx and Engels (1985), a patriarchal husband sees in his marital fair sex a mere instrument of production of prostitution both(prenominal) common and private (1848101). Nevertheless, accompanied by complex causes, women increasingly gain more rights and equalities in the relationship with men in contemporary China. That is, in comparison with the womens strict virtue in the old days of China, Qing Dynasty in particul ar, advanced(a) Chinese women as well as men tend to be more open and unfastened to the thinker of virginity and fidelity (Ko, Haboush and Piggott, 2003 China Daily, 2003 the States Online, 1995 Zhou, 1989).However, many have argued that the root of womens honor is still solid to transfigure in China straighta modeadays (Peoples Daily, 2003). There are two remarkable cases that emerged more slowlyly, which to a great extent explain the conflicting note lever of womens rightness in modern China. A recent report (Richburg, 2010) exhibit that there is a developing trend of hymen restoration of Chinese women, which they could return to the virgin by the surgical procedure. Similarly, a considered cheaper and easier focusing of creation a pretended virgin is pop and well taken as well as the hymen restoration surgery. According to Gu (2011), the moveimental hymen is appeared as a little piece of semi-transparent tissue that you dumbfound this into the vagina, itll dis solve and expand. Have sex in about 20 to 30 minutes, and youll bleed.As a modern Chinese woman, the movement of womens right draws my attention. I am particularly interested in the area of womens uprightness, which on unrivaled hand is assumed to have a great progress in contrast to Qing dynasty. In regard to the factors that had brought to this evolution, it is hypothesized that apart from the ideological change of the significance of womens worthiness, several effects such(prenominal) as the culture of engineering science, governmental policies, education, globalization, and media have likewise led to the different attitudes and behaviours during these two different eras and on an new(prenominal)(prenominal) hand, it is believed that to a certain extent, the attitudes towards womens chastity in Qing dynasty have cushi wholenessd on modern China.As a consequence, I will focus on the comparison of the significance of the concept of womens virginity and fidelity in Qing Dynast y and Contemporary China, primary(prenominal)ly by looking at the two stoppages of women pre- wedlock and post-marriage. Moreover, several major causes of different attitudes and behaviours in these two different eras will likewise be discussed respectively. collectible to the limitation of time and source, and the sensitivity of the research topic, the investigation is conducted inside the university campus. intravenous feeding groups will be studied in sight to see the differences between different genders and generations UNNC girls, UNNC boys, their mothers, and their fathers. In addition, the research of Qing dynasty will be taken home base mostly in the analyze of literatures.Literature ReviewThe literature review will take the progress of the significance of the concept of womens chastity as a whole and continuing process. Thus, not whole Qing dynasty and Contemporary China will be examined, the period (1900-2000) between Qing dynasty and Contemporary China is as w ell important due to the fact that it had vital contributions to the development of womens right, which eventually led to the understanding of womens chastity in pre move China. The costing reviews will be dressed generally check to the chronological sequence, and mainly focus on the Qing and the Republican China due to the limited recent researches on upstart Chinese womens chastity.2.1 Qing DynastyThe traditional concept of chastity is tightly linked to the ideology of patriarchy. As a property of men in the patriarchal golf club, womens comfort was merely to breed the progeny and to satisfy men in sexuality. In order to assure the purity of the blood, the strict demand on chastity was therefore emerged. The traditional chastity devoted itself to two sections virgin before marriage, and be faithful to unrivaled and only(a)s husband unto death later on marriage (Li, 2006 Zhou, 2003).As the ideology of cultural expression and the foundation of the family system in olympi an China, Confucianism is generally the essential ideology of fe potent virtue in of late Imperial China. Particularly the concept of filiality (xiao) and fidelity (jie) have had great impacts on Qing Dynasty (Ko and Haboush and Piggott, 2003). A good example is the foot binding in Qing which according to Mackie (1996), the actual objective was to consider womens fidelity. The so-called chastity cult, a way for women to butt on their ultimate moral responsibility to the patriline into which they married, was in the position of control in Qing by honouring two female virtues purity, similar to fidelity (jie), and calvary (commonly regarded as lie). Jie mainly referred to autocratic fidelity and sexual purity to wholeness husband, in which women remained their lifelong devotion to serve the husbands family. Compared to jie, lie was more towards the unquestioning contributement to fidelity and sexual purity often end up with death or suicide by the expected requirement of self -sacrifice. That is, there were commonly merely two choices, both ending in trouble for women or even young girls at the period pain in death or suffering in life (Ko and Haboush and Piggott, 2003).However, in contrast of the widespread phenomena in early Qing which promoted both martyrdom and fidelity, the idea of fidelity seemed to be more preferable since the mid-Qing due to the expanded acceptance of filiality to husbands parents. Namely, widows were promote to fulfil their primary obligation- to serve parents-in-law and to raise the heirs (ibid). Yet, many had chosen to come up their husbands in death after accomplishing their expected duties (ibid). Theiss (2004) argues that womens chastity was often link to the human arrogance in terms of being a person. In other words, majority of them found themselves no longer being a person in which they were offended even via slight bedevilments such as flirtation. As a consequence, numerous women were recorded chastity suicide du ring Qing.That is, womens self-awareness to the concept of chastity would lead to the track of decease (ibid). Except for the initial swear which was tuging to reveal a womans ethics and humanity as a woman (Theiss, 2004 Ko and Haboush and Piggott, 2003), there were other existing outside factors that have indirectly resulted in womens chastity. On unitary hand, governmental policies such as encouragement, promotion, and penalisation were considered as the principal elements of the flourish of chaste women in Qing Dynasty (Ko and Haboush and Piggott, 2003). For example, the penalty for women who commit adultery was way severe than for men (Brown, 1952). On the other hand, societal pressure as well as education likewise impressively be activeed womens behaviours. In addition, widows talent earn particular advantages, kind respect and family honour, for instance (Ko and Haboush and Piggott, 2003).Apart from the thinkable causes that Ko and Haboush and Piggott (2003) discu ssed, Theiss (2004) further extends the range of potence motivations leading to female suicide in Qing. Firstly, familys attitude was crucial. The husbands or family members, especially in-laws, who refused or failed to report and express the outrages such as the issues of sexual harassment on the womens beone-half due to two major reasons family reputation and the threat from offenders, to a large extent led to the desperation of women. As a result, they usually turned to seek death. Furthermore, it is widely believed that fictions and dramas to some extent had driven women into the faith of supernatural revenge. For example, becoming ghosts assured them to have power to return and retaliate those who had harmed them (ibid). Moreover, by rewarding as chastity martyrs might lead to the injure of harassers family reputation (ibid).Nonetheless, it seems that the idea of womens chastity might have been over-emphasized by historians. Theiss (2004) accentuated that disrespect Qing Dy nastys well-known chastity cult, not every woman was a raw sienna of the female chastity. Plenty of women carried on adulterous personal business for years without the annoyance of their reputation. Additionally, according to her take up, most breach victims including those who suffered extreme violence or combination rapes did not commit suicide (ibid).It is argued that even though some women were volition to stay chaste after their husbands death, the facts of financial problem often brought them endure to reality and accept the remarriage. Sommer (2000) points out that the chastity was indeed unaffordable for many widows in Qing. They usually were willing to remarry quickly in the attempt of assemblage enough capital to liquidate the debts of her former husband, or even to pay his interment. In other words, a widow might trade herself with the bride-price to her advanced husband in order to settle outstanding debts before the marriage. However, it is not guaranteed tha t those widows with property which left(p) by their deceased husband could follow their willingness for being a chaste widow. In fact, they might provoke the envy of in-laws those who cherished to take over the property, and often were forced to take the staged remarriage. sooner the Xinhai Revolution, Chinese women only compete a very marginal role (Lu, 1993), due to the reason that, as Raphals (1998) claimed, They were eternally oppressed, powerless, passive, and silent. Yet, influenced by Western cultures and revolutions, a group headed by Kang Youwei, Liang Qichao, and Tan Sitong were gradually wake to the issues of gender faithfulness in the late Qing. They challenged the traditional idea of chastity and yearned to change the roles women played at the time. Their attentions were mainly focused on the campaigns of womens education and the granting immunity of marriage (Zhou, 2003 Chen, 2001).2.2 The 20th CenturyAfter Xinhai Revolution, the Confucianism was remained popula r for a short period under the support of the Northern Warlords. Similar to Qing, the behaviours of chaste women were highly honoured and promoted by the government and society, until the first meaningful womens movement in Chinese history- whitethorn Fourth Movement (Chen, 2001 Zhou, 2003). It brought up the new concept of womens chastity, which is under the condition of the true love, and the equality between the sexes (Li, 2006). Influenced by the Sex Revolution at the period in the Western foundation, intellectuals such as the famous scholars LuXun and HuShi, bad criticized the traditional view of chastity in 3 ways morality, love, and governmental policies (Chen, 2001). Firstly, LuXun (1918) claimed that it is immoral to demand womens chastity. Fidelity and martyrdom are the malformed moralities that aim to oppress and befool women, he clarified, Women and Men are equalmorality is meant for both men and womenmen cannot require women for things they dont even do. Hushi (1918) also pointed out that it is immoral to ask women to obey the chastity while men were allowed to be involved with concubines and prostitutes.Secondly, chastity could not be considered as an existence without love. As HuShi pointed out, chastity was an attitude between husbands and wives it is willingness earlier than a compulsion. Thus, he indicated that for the women who do not love their husband, usually were the victims of arranged marriage, it is not their obligation to follow the fidelity and martyrdom for their un-chaste husbands. In addition, Hushi also questioned womens behaviour of committing suicide after being raped. He argued that they did not break their chastity and dignity because the rape is occurred by force not willingness. As a result, he suggested that the society should not look down on the raped women, and respect the hardy performance of those people who married un-virgins or as un-virgins.Thirdly, it was brutal and unlike for government to promote chaste w omen. It is suggested that it is a widows interest to preserve chastity or remarry, others should not intervene (Chen, 2001). The may aside indeed to a great extent enhanced the progress of womens chastity, however, due to the limitations of Chinese history and society, the New Chastity was merely accepted by several extremist intellectuals. Although it seemed that there were minority of women got rid of the traditional chastity, the majority, and even to the entire society were still affected by the traditional chastity. During the era, the New Chastity was besides theoretical rather than particle (Chen, 2001 Li, 2006). Apart from the contributions from the open-minded scholars, globalisation, media, and mass-culture indirectly helped to induce womens chastity to a new level. For example, the widespread of the translated books which were passkeyly written by foreigners such as the Japanese author Akiko Yosano (18781942) and her work (Chen, 2001).After the May Forth Movement, more attentions were p attend to on womens liberation. Since the establishment of the Republic China, material efforts were made by Chinese government in improving womens status. by dint of legislations, more legal rights in education, marriage, and property were offered for women (Zhou, 2003).The Communist Party of China (CPC) has brought womens status to a new level after their victory in 1949, especially under the Mao regime. Mao promoted the equal rights and personal dignity between sexes, and contributed to 3 important revolutionary changes for women the Marriage Law of fifties ensured the license of marriage and divorce the Election Law of PRC of 1953 tending(p) womens right to vote as well as men and the equality of rights between men and women in terms of possessing or inherit property. It is believed that the by 1958, 16 million Chinese women were able to read, while before 1949, only 10% of women were literates. Furthermore, CPC encouraged women to participate in fo nd production, which women gained more capitals in both economic and social aspects (ibid). It is also worth mentioning that prostitution and concubine have been out of law since the CPC came to power (ibid). Consequently, with the basic conditions, Chinese Womens awakening consciousness began to play as an important role in the post-Mao era (Li, 1994299). In addition, Zhou (2003) stated that some other pre-condition of womens liberation is the financial independency of women, in which they had no longer need to fully rely on their husbands.Peoples Republic of China (PRC) gradually shifted their concentration from the outer effects to the interior effects in the respect of womens liberation. According to Zhou (200369), the Fourth World Conference on womens right was hosted by China in 1995. It includes the rights to freedom of thought, conscience religion and belief, and participation on the basis of equality in all eliminate all forms of discrimination against women promotes wom ens economic independence and ensure womens equal access to economic resources, including science and technology, vocational training, study, communication, and marts.Zhou (1989) presents the dilemmatic point for young women in the area of virginity and premarital sex in China in the late 1980s. Although the traditional views placed a high value on female virginity and deprecate premarital sex, young people now seem to have more opportunities to explore both love and sex, with the gate of the new idea of romantic love accompanied by the growing social acceptance of close interactions between women and men. According to Zhous research in 1985, which has taken place in China, most of the young men had claimed their foretaste of a virgin wife. Moreover, in rural China, nearly all the male and female peasants came to an agreement that in a love relationship, virginity was still considered to be the most valuable treasure for women. Nevertheless, the rate of premarital sexual commun ion was increasing rapidly in the present China in pique of still-existing traditional values. Several reasons can be considered for the further understanding social acceptance, education, and the support of young mens parents. It was agreed that most women have experienced the psychological pressures of a great dilemma in the selection between be a virgin and satisfying their boyfriends, but increasingly, women surrendered their resistance to the strategically steamy persuasion of their boyfriends (ibid).In terms of additionalmarital affairs which are popular nowadays in China, Thompson (1984) declared that either mere emotional or sexual involvement with someone other than ones spouse can be counted as extramarital affairs. According to Schwartz and Rutter (1998), all perspectives on gender differences in sexuality were divided into two dichotomized groups traditional versus feminist. Traditional biosocial theories who reifying the biological distinctions between men and women , attempt to justify mens promiscuous behaviours by maximizing the partners in order to inseminate the possible largest amount of women, men can somehow show their masculinity whereas women would maximize their births for the purpose of holding onto the relationship. In antonym of the traditional perspectives, it is asserted by feminist perspectives that sexuality discrepancies between the genders are socially constructed. In this point of view, similar to men, women will tend to maximize their partners if the conditions allow them (ibid).2.3 Contemporary ChinaIn Lis work (2006), she divides the present views of chastity in China into 3 categories love-ism, utilitarianism, and hedonism. Firstly, love-ism chastity, which was first brought up during the May Forth Movement, means sex with the motivation of love. A research about the reasons of premarital sex, which organised by in 2004, mainly surveyed on the contemporary Chinese youth (age 20-30), in which most of them went to the universities. The result shows that for the women who had premarital sex experiences, 31.1% of them indicated that they did it in order to enhance the love in relationships, while 24.8% and 28.6% for the purposes of curiosity and want to keep their boyfriends respectively. Other 15.5% were claimed to have other reasons. From the research it is obvious that love-ism chastity is the mainstream concept of chastity nowadays in China (Zhou, 2006).Secondly, utilitarianism chastity is usually referred to the sex for benefits, such as the social phenomenon of prostitution and concubine (ibid). Thirdly, in regard of hedonism chastity, sex is often involved with either the physical or the psychological pleasure, or both. In the contemporary society, hedonism chastity is more apt(predicate) the performance of simply physical pleasure (ibid). A recent study emphasizes that among the 40% of netizens who had experience on cyber love, nearly half of them did it on the purpose of one wickedness s tand (Xu, 2005).There are 4 main causes of the 3 categories of chastity. In the first place, the highly promotion of socialist market parsimony not only has vital contribution on the economy, but also in the area of politics, ideology, and morality. On one way, the commodity economy leads to the arousal of the sense of equality, which challenges the traditional idea of chastity, and women start to chase personal happiness. Therefore the love-ism chastity emerged. On another way, the commodity economy also arisen accompanied with hedonism and mammonism which directly link to the hedonism chastity and utilitarianism chastity (Zhou, 2006).Secondly, the rapid development of technologies, particularly the medical technology, popularizes the ways of contraception, and arrives the abortion safer and more convenient. Hence, the concerns about outlaw(a) child were reduced, and eventually provide advantages for hedonistic sex. Women seemed to be the best beneficiary, which the motherlines s once was one of the most fears to have premarital sex. As a consequence, women can pay more attention on love rather than physical elements, which to some extent promote the formation of love-ism chastity (ibid). shade aspect is probably one of the most essential factors. Although it seems that the traditional perspectives of chastity had lost its position in present society, however, in rural areas, villages in particular, it is still prevails. Moreover, the modern culture affects the modern youth in the way that they think it is their right and choice to choose their lifestyle such as cohabitation. Additionally, the Western culture such as the idea of sexual freedom and sexual liberation break the mysticism of sexuality, and attempt to achieve the sexual equality. Thus, the viewpoint of sex is changed. For the modern youth, love is not only uncanny and material, but also physical. Sex is certainly a part of love, and it aid to promote love. It is therefore nonsense to limit the sex. More importantly, it is believed by the youth that premarital sex is a positive behaviour in which it is a vital path to know a person and helping to make decisions on selecting the partner for life (ibid).Last but not least, social control gives the green light to the multiplex conceptions of chastity. For example, the Marriage Law forbids the married people cohabitate with others. Nevertheless, it is lack of the specific explanation on penalty and penalisement. Laws can be such unfastened about extramarital cohabitation, do not even have to mention about premarital cohabitation and one night stand (ibid). Furthermore, in the present days, people care less about the things which not related to them, especially in the beneficial way. In this case, the shorten of social opinion looses the social psychological stress and reduces the restraint of peoples behaviour. In addition, the morality in China has change notably on the impact of the West (ibid). A relatively recent survey based on 2063 undergraduates in 18 universities in Shanghai, shows their attitudes on premarital cohabitation 89.5% in bring believe that it is understandable if the motivation is love, and it is inappropriate to over concern other peoples issues while only 9.2% of them think that it is a moral degenerate (Xu and Wang, 2002). methodologyIn order to facilitate the research and discover more information on this area, two methodologies were utilised for different purposes. Literature analysis is use through literature reviews, aiming to find out the significance of the concept of Chinese womens chastity in Qing dynasty, since the era is too remote to be testified. In the meantime, questionnaires were set up in attempt to study the perception of womens virginity and fidelity in contemporary China. Additionally, both literature analysis and questionnaire are include in order to better understand the condition and situation of womens chastity the 20th century, mainly Republican China.Th e questionnaire is probably one of the most rough-and-ready means to testify the hypothesis which was mentioned in the introduction, and to find out some other interesting information relevant to the topic but which is not anticipated in the early stages. Regarding to the sample of research, 140 surveys were required in total which divided by genders and generations. On one hand, 70 UNNC undergraduate students, 35 females and 35 males respectively, were selected randomly and selectively, which in the way it can contain as many opinions as possible, and reducing bias with maximum efforts (Strugis, 2008). As the attention of the questionnaire is focused on Modern China, and the university students can be considered as the spielative groups of educated Chinese young people, therefore the candidates of the research are all selected among the Chinese students in UNNC. Moreover, the division of male and female represent the outside and inner factors. Apart from the self-conscious of wo men, mens attitude will affect womens understanding of chastity. Hence, it is crucial to include both of the two genders.On another hand, 70 copies of survey for parents, 35 females as well as 35 males, were sent along with the ones meant for students. It is interesting to compare and contrast the ideas on womens virginity and fidelity between the parents and their children, which they are respectively representative for the new generation that border by the global environment, high-level education, widespread mass media, and developed technology and the older generation who grew up in a period when China was relatively more closed to the outside world, and the progresses of technology and education are limited. Furthermore, the older generation may also be able to demonstrate the view of womens chastity of Republican China. Through the comparison of the two different generations can provide the possible causes that might lead to the different perspectives on womens virginity and f idelity.For the purpose of not making the candidates take too long when plectrum the questionnaire, the questionnaire is designed with two sections. There are 15 multiple choices and 3 open questions for UNNC girls, and 7 closed questions and 1 open question for UNNC boys. The mothers one is similar to their daughters while the fathers one is similar to their sons. Overall, parents ones contain two extra questions asking their age cranny and education level, which seemed unnecessary for the UNNC students since their age gap and education level are confirmed undergraduate. It is ensured that each survey takes no more than 15 minutes to finish it, without disturbing their study and work.According to Simmons (2008), pilot study is important with its function that it helps to refine the questionnaire. Thus, the initial samples were sent to several friends of mine before the actual distribution of the questionnaires, in order to examine the questionnaires critically with their objectiv e points of view. As a result, some weaknesses of the original questionnaires were found. Such as the unclear instructions and questions, and some other possible option of answers that some candidates may want to choose are left out (ibid).Qualitative method was chosen in the first place, however, with the ravel on few random UNNC students which I found on the High-Street, and one of the aunts who works in Canteen, I discovered their unwillingness of answering such sensitive questions, especially to a stranger. As an alternative, I chose questionnaire since it is less unwieldiness to answer the questions. In the beginning, I sent the questionnaires to all UNNC undergraduates with the postscript of for Chinese Students only. Nevertheless, I found little response, and within the received questionnaires, most of them abscond the sensitive questions such as are you a virgin.In order to maximise the response rate and the facticity, I managed to upload the questionnaires online, in whi ch it is exclusively anonymous and make it more comfortable and more convenient for the candidates to do the surveys. Yet, there was a misgiving about the people other than UNNC undergraduates might answer the online questionnaires and eventually affect the result. As a consequence, I locked the questionnaires with password, and sent the four addresses of online questionnaires and the password to all UNNC undergraduates via email UNNC girl, UNNC boy, their mother, and their father respectively. Also, in the email, I required the students not only to enter the relevant website, but also forward the online surveys to their parents. Additionally, the questionnaires for UNNC Undergraduates were written in English, while the ones for their parents were written in both Chinese and English.Findings and Discussions4.1 thickset of Literature AnalysisAs what the literature analysis manifested, the demand of womens virginity before marriage and the fidelity after marriage was passing strict in Qing.Due to the traditional ideology of Confucianism, women were merely one of mens properties in the patriarchal society. The popularized chastity cult played a vital role in Qing by honouring two female virtues purity (jie), and martyrdom (lie). The former one referred to the sexual purity to one husband and the dogmatic lifetime fidelity to serve the in-laws whereas, the latter one was more towards the absolute commitment to jie, which required more self-sacrifice and often end up with death. Numerous women were recorded chastity suicide during Qing. Several major causes of womens chastity will be analysed in the following paragraphs.First of all, womens chastity was noteworthy in terms of human dignity. Majority of them felt failed of being a person after being offended even through slight harassments such as flirtation. Moreover, governmental policies highly promoted the chaste women, and severely punish the considered un-chaste women such as the women accused of adultery . In addition, social pressure and education had a great contribution as well. Finally, widows could obtain particular advantages. kindly respects and family honour, for instance.Nonetheless, it is argued that the chaste suicides in Qing might have been over-emphasized. On one hand, there were a large number of women who carried on adulterous affairs without concerning their reputation. On the other hand, most rape victims did not search the path of death during the Qing era.For the women who were willing to become chaste widows after the death of their husband, financial issues often stopped them from doing so. In order to collect enough silver to liquidate the debts of the dead husband, or to finance his interment, a certain number of women accepted the remarriage. In other words, they traded themselves with the bride-price to their new husbands. Additionally, the widows with property which left by their deceased husband might be forced to take the arranged remarriage by the en vy in-laws who wanted to take over the property.In the late Qing, a group of open-minded intellectuals who were influenced by the Western culture, had brought up the idea of gender equity, and defied the traditional chastity. Yet, their focuses were mainly on the campaigns of womens education and the freedom of marriage.4.2 Questionnaire SummaryThe total valid responses were 79, including 33 female undergraduates, 22 male undergraduates, 13 mothers, and 11 fathers. It is a satisfactory rate of response, which reached 56%. More than half of the

Friday, March 29, 2019

Benefits of Flexitime in the Public Sector

Benefits of Flexi duration in the Public SectorFlexible blending magazine is a new style of act upon condition which has its root from the German word Gleitzeit which means sliding period. It may be defined as a vari satisfactory hammer entry which eachows persons to fulfill their obligations outside a rigid frame hold of time. Flexitime eachows an employee to choose the time when he will step to the fore ladder and when he will finish but with a totality time when everybody moldiness be present which is normally a closure of four to sestet hours in the middle of the traditional break docket(Rubin,1979).Flexitime has been raw materialally categorized into three types namely, gliding or variable time where the employees tramp change their arriver and de bring outure time whenever they want as broad as they argon present for a core period of time. Flextour too allows workers to change their arrival or departure time but they moldiness specify in advance when they wi ll arrive and depart for a period of one or two weeks. Here alike there is a core period to loom. A third type of flexitime is a completely compromising one where there is no core period. Employees ignore come and depart as long as a reach out a set number of hours per week or per month(Estes,1990).A basic model of flexitime may be summarized as belowA great dealwidth which is the ahead of time time at which employees start work up to the latest polish time (e.g. 6.00 am to 6.30 p.m).A core time within which all employees be present at work (e.g. 10.00 to 12.00 a.m and 2.00 to 4.00 p.m). In fact it is centering who usually set the core time whereas the flexile time is contumacious by the employee based upon common consent (Nadler et al,2010).A flexible band of hours during which the employees might vary the time of starting work in the morning time and/or the time of quitting work in the afternoon .Banking, which permits the employees to accumulate superabundance or before longage of hours worked.The basis of flexitime in the Public Sector has been a subject of rangy debate since a very long time. respective(a) studies have been done on this subject in many a(prenominal) another(prenominal) countries. Nowadays, many organizations are in a state of change and given the speedy development in the business purlieu worldwide, the requirement for managing employees effectively was never as signifi houset as it is today. Moreover, increased globalization, technological evolution, new laws and regulations, ever-changing economic and social environment are all public press organizations to be more than competitive and finding recrudesce ways of collaborating and ensuring a symphonic relation amid vigilance and employees. Trust has to be built in corporate governance, in business strategies and in the future success of work and too in the skills, abilities and desires of the workforce.The aim of this paper is to debate on the total con cept of flexitime, also defined in some papers as flexible work sights. The objectives of the research are summarized as followsWhy the destiny for flexitimeTo show the impact of flexitime in the life of civil servantsTo show whether flexitime reduces mental strain and increases joke gaiety and supply moraleTo show if it gives rise to more efficient work practices by improving productiveness and performance test to analyse whether flexitime assistants workers to reconcile work with family responsibilitiesWhether flexitime dish ups in trim lateness and absenteeismWhether flextime contributes in reducing the need for overtimeTo demonstrate whether flexitime enhances motivation of employees at their workplace resolve to analyse the concept from both a prudence and employee point of catch up withSeek to analyse its advantages and disadvantages both to management and to employeesThe information has been extracted both from the mystic and public orbits.Background and overview Different studies have been carried out in many countries on the concept of flexitime and each one has come up with its receive conclusions. During the 1960s there was a labour shortage in Germany. ChristelKraemerer so came up with the concept of flexitime to encourage housewives and mothers to join the labour market to plow this particular problem. Thus the strict rule of standard work schedule no longer exists where more than 75% of the workforce are for flexible workings schedule( Kattenbach et al., 2010). By 1972 the United States had started flexitime on a pilot basis(Rubin,1979). In 2003 the UK government passed a legislation giving the right to employees having children infra six or having disabled children under eighteen, to request a flexible work arrangement and by April 2007 the law included this facility to carers of adults(http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flextime). William R. Estes had come up with a meta-analysis of the effects of flexitime over a large number of circ umstances. He made use of results of previous research articles to demonstrate the effects of flexitime on absenteeism, productivity, overtime cost, leisure/family time, job satisfaction, role conflict, turnover, transport problems, and the desire to encompass the use of flexitime. The meta analysis concluded that it was easier to implement flexitime in small organizations than in bigger ones. This is mainly imputable to the complexity of larger organizations and to the number of employees compared to small organizations. It also showed that flexitime increases job satisfaction, reduces absenteeism and hollos on leaves entitlement, changed employee behavior. But, on the other arrive at it did not have big effect on productivity.Flexitime is also sensed as being a modern rotating shaft for managing re semens more effectively, efficiently and economically(Khamkaya and Sloan,2009). In todays competitive world people is seen to be one of the secern resources which can bring suc cess to an organization(wickramasinghe and Jayabandhu, 2007). In this context, the effective management of human resources is an important feature in the adoption of flexitime in an organization.A study on the implementation of flexitime in the Scottish Local Authorities showed reluctance on the part of employees due to cultural change, in fitted support from the current organizational policy. Changing a long lasting culture in an organization is perhaps one of the most hard task an organization and management can face. Although there are many benefits pertaining to the adoption of flextime, the success obtained in one organization does not guarantee that it will work in other organisations also. Management, employers science, employees perception, the working environment will play a big role and will vary from one organization to the other.Flexitime was introduced in an IT sector in Sri Lanka which put more emphasis on people management. stiff human resource management contrib ute highly to the realization of pileus growth and technological expansion. Some studies have sh take that female workers are more in favour of flexitime as it helps them to coordinate more effectively their work and their private life commitments. When both parents are working in a family there is a greater need for flexitime as it enables them to properly hide their family responsibilities and any other commitments they may have for example, the pursuance of higher studies. Employees were all in favour of flexitime and would bid to have it in all workplaces. Employers were able to have the trust of employees, their full commitment and increase their potential. Welch and Gordon(1980) had found that tractability encouraged employees to remain with the same employer for longer. However, the sri Lankan study revealed that this was not necessarily the case. It must be emphasized that the Sri Lankan study is more recent and was conducted twenty septette years later where many chang es have occurred in the working environment and conditions. Similarly concerning the gender issue other studies suggested that female workers were more in favour of flexitime, the findings in the Sri Lankan context revealed that there were no significant differences surrounded by males and females perceptions. Management systems are modernizing and there is a need to develop strategies like flexitime in a globally competitive environment(Wickramasinghe, Jayabandu (2007)).Flexitime has also been implemented passim the Queensland public sector since 1996. But this study revealed that flexitime created much(prenominal) frustrations among employees. This was mainly due to the arising of long working hours and inadequate time off. Employees were allowed to bank their free hours worked up to a maximum of thirty hours. Some employees accumulated up to 800 excess hours and could not take it as there was a significant privation of faculty. But there were other areas in the same organiz ation where staff were able to take timeoff due to to the conscious decisions of managers. Also flexitime caused a descend in socialization in the workplace as colleagues could not conform to their friends as each had his own time of coming and going and winning breaks. on that point was also lack of proper regulations to monitor the system. The study showed the greatness of regulation and good management of the system to increase employee welfare. Although there are great benefits from flexitime it can also have detrimental effects if it is not properly managed(http//www.freepatentsonline.com).A study on flexitime in the National health Services (NHS) in UK showed that it brought much happiness to employees. It was studied as an grammatical construction of Improving Working Lives (IWL) standard in an NHS Acute Trust. Over a third of the employees considered the implementation of flexitime as a give and take approach. They felt up that they have to and they wanted to perform break down in return of the advantages they got from the flexible arrangements. They perceived much happiness as they felt that they were well set and valued and that there was a reduction of stress in their daily lives. However the study had a limited conception. It laid emphasis on only one aspect, that is IWL (Atkinson and Hall, 2011). Sanchez et al.,(2007) have said Flexibility is a source of competitive advantage. Enhancing flexibility may be costly in the short run, but it gets easier over time. Firms become more flexible because their managers emphasise the vastness of flexibility and because they practice being flexible. A self-reinforcing process then begins.The carrying into action of Flexitime in the Mauritanian public sectorThe fundament of flexitime in the Mauritian accomplished Service has been advocated since 1993 by the Pay enquiry Bureau so as to solve the problems of late arrivals in routine due to trade congestion and other family problems. In its report of 2003 the PRB has recommended that subject to the approval of the Ministry of Civil Service Affairs and Administrative Reforms and after consultation with the staff side, Ministries/Departments/Organisations should hie the introduction of flexitime where demand exist and resources permit. Flexitime would normally not be relevant to certain categories of officers due to the nature of their duties, for exampleOfficers operating on a shift system, roster basis and staggered hoursOfficers in the manual gradesOfficers in the develop forceOfficers in the education sectorA survey had also been undertaken in this context. The conclusions were that organisations which had adopted flexitime had been effective in combating excessive/regular tardiness. The absence of a computerised system of attention and additional resources required were one of the study(ip) hindrances for its application in other sectors. Lack of supervision was also an issue. Those working in teams also dont find i t fitted to their needs and it was also difficult to evaluate work performed after normal working hours in cost of productivity.Some Chief Executives have made some favourable observations. They adduce that flexitime can increase productivity, improve performance and reduce overtime costs if used judiciously and effectively. It can also increase efficiency and improve quality of life of employees. It can also combat lateness and prevent hatred of leave by officers and is a good management tool (PRB report 2008).The report has further laid emphasis on the responsibility of management and employees in the public sector.Management ResponsibilitiesThe PRB has spelt out the responsibilities of management on the application of flexitime as follows(a) introduction of irregular workweek whereby employees have early arrival times and late departure times(b) ensuring that there is adequate office coverage during official hours and that customer service and work requirements are not adver sely affected by employee participation in alternate work schedules(c) ensuring that employee participation in alternative work schedules is equitable and uniform across work units within the organization(d)complying with all procedural requirements on authentication of time and attendance and work schedules(e) communicating and seeking plebeian agreement with the employees on work schedules(f) planning office workflow to keep in line that there is productive work for employees to perform(g) suspending an employees alternative work schedule when workload requirements, temporary duty, or training preclude participation(h) communicate employees as soon as practicable of any modifications in work schedule(i) making a concerted effort to schedule office meetings during core hours and(j) to ensure monitoring and supervision in establishing work hours, negative abuses and take corrective measures if abuses occur.Employees ResponsibilitiesThe responsibilities of the employees on the introduction of flexitime as pointed out in the PRB Report 2003 are as follows(a)complying with all procedural requirement regarding certification of time and attendance and work schedules to which they are assigned(b)communicating and seeking mutual agreement with the supervisor on work schedules and maintaining records of daily time and attendance in accordance with office procedures.Advantages of FlexitimeThere are many advantages resulting from the introduction of flexitime. And it is beneficial to employees, employers and management.The advantages of flexitime from a point of view of managementImprovement in productivityWith the implementation of flexitime it is felt that absenteeism and turnover are trim down, and job satisfaction is improved in an organisation. Flexitime is also associated with increased productivity and morale and reduced absenteeism.OvertimeThe need for overtime is not felt as employees can manage busy and slack periods. Management can also do a saving on item of overtime. Moreover, completion of lengthy work assignments can be completed without resorting to overtime .EfficiencyFlexitime can help employees to combine their work and in the flesh(predicate) responsibilities, and can help workflow to be managed more efficiently.(a) domestic matters can be dealt with in employees own time(b) details of employees time keeping is readily available( c) the existence of a scheme can act as a positive tool in recruitmentThe advantages of flexitime from employee perspectiveReduces stress and fatigueIt relieves officers of their stress and help them to wear out manage the balance amidst work commitments, family responsibilities and lifestyle choices to the advantages of the services. It helps employees to emend cope with both the work and the household and child care responsibilities. It also makes travelling easier out of peak hours.Greater staff morale and job satisfactionFlexitime promotes happiness Employees perceive that flexible work schedule brings them satisfaction (Atkinson and Hall,2010). They are also able to vary working time gum olibanum enjoying time-autonomy which positively influence performance. This autonomy acts as motivator to job satisfaction. There is also a team spirit and morale is high.Reduces delayed arrival caused by traffic congestionFlexitime allows you to schedule your travel and time to vacate congestionMore in control of their workloads and manage a better balance between in the flesh(predicate) life and workAllows bank time ( accrued flex balance hours) to be used for leisure/ personal activities. Increased opportunity to fit other commitments and activities in with work, and make better use of their free time. Personal matters therefore can be sieve without having to take time off. Todays workforce increasingly consists of women and workers in alternative family structures much(prenominal) as single headed and dual earner families. Faced with more pressing demands from both th e workplace and home these employees often divide time between these two competing interest. Among those likely to benefit to greater workplace flexibility are prime working age women, women household heads, and employees in two earner families.Advantages from Employer PerspectiveFlexitime takes away the easy audit of who is punctual and who is not. It makes the employee accountable for his own timekeeping and makes rigid timekeeping by the supervisor unimportant.It shifts focus of management from monitoring of attendances to productivity of the employee.It racecourses to joint accountability of workers and management .Absenteeism is reduced and in many cases the need for overtime is not felt.Retention of employees who seek flexible work arrangement (Nadler et al, 2010)Workers feel more responsible to the organisation and an atmosphere of partnership between employer and employee develops.Although flexitime is the most popular way of varying daily hours it has its limitations, and is not suitable for all job roles and workplaces, and other flexible options may provide better solutions. Flexitime works best, as with all alternative working patterns, as part of a package of options available to help employees balance their work and personal lives and the organisation meet its business objectives.However, this system has brought some difficulties in the work practice.The main disadvantages resulting from flexitime arePerceived loss of management control bare(a) hours of supervision may be requiredThere is potential for abuse of the flexible work periodsGreater co-ordination of working arrangements is required to maintain coverCover is lessened due to additional time off under flexi leaveStaff who cannot be afforded flexible working hours experience acrimonyCost of implementing control systems/equipmentAdditional work for personnel/supervisory staff e.g. inputting time credits for leave and adjustments, recording of flexi leaveTo what extent the introduction of f lexitime can be successful in reality for Mauritius is stable a question of big debate. Proper planning is very important. Although the Pay Research Bureau has recommended its implementation but what has been done and what is being done is still under consideration. From the literature review it is seen that all researches which have been conducted in this landing field there are varying views from different authors. Some have brought preliminary many advantages and others have noticed many drawbacks. Some employees have derived much satisfaction while others have experienced much frustration in particular due to the long hours culture which has developed. Likewise some employers have seen major improvements in the quality of work while others are still quizzical as to the success of this strategy. Some are also fearful that it would lead to anarchy in production and that the costs of implementation would exceed the benefits. by this paper we will try to analyse a general perc eption of flexitime in the Mauritian public sector and will it be really successful in our context taking into consideration all the constraints.

Thursday, March 28, 2019

Why We Should Read Great Literature :: Literature Essays Literary Criticism

Why We Should Read striking Literature In western culture, many literary works have been set apart from the assuagement by being termed majuscule literature. What qualifies a work to be striking literature, and why should we read it? An excellent source on this topic is Mortimer Adler, sensationness of the premier American philosophers of the twentieth century and founder of the famous expectant Books List. According to Adler, all great(p) literature meets three criteria the work is disposed(p) to contemporary life, is worth rereading, and contains great ideas. Six of these great ideas, defined by Adler, are three great ideas by which we judge--truth, goodness, and beauty--and three great ideas by which we live--equality, liberty, and proficientice. The ideas of justice, responsibilities of a society, responsibilities of the individual, nature of disobedience, and the oppression of people are all great ideas by which we live. All writers must possess strength if they are to dependably address these great ideas. According to Anne Perez, in Experiences of the Great Books, the great writers dared to be creative in societies that were not always receptive to such courage. Great literature is germane(predicate) to human problems in every century, not just twentieth-century problems or problems exclusive to the time in which the work was written. In new(prenominal) words, great literature has stood the test of time. It still influences our beliefs and ideas, shaping our civilization. A great literary work must also have complexities. According to Adler, a great book has many meanings. This explains why all great literature is worth rereading. A good book with no more than one meaning need only be read once. In sum total to Adlers criteria, great literature addresses two important issues what is truth and how do we discern it? Each work, writes Perez, has vastly different truths ranging from aspects of art, to matters of religion, to types of government. What each writer must do is convince his or her audience that s/he has found somewhat way to determine truth. In conclusion, great literature has the following characteristics it is relevant to contemporary life, it is worth rereading, and it should contain certain great ideas.

Technology Essay -- essays research papers

Executive OverviewThere is a definite propensity for better traffic data to give conveyrs more choice and ascendency for avoiding traffic congestion. And whats more, today there is no viable answer to each(prenominal)eviate the unnecessary aggravation and minimize the loss of valuable cadence & money. Interviewing a sample of commuter, taxi, and package lecture drivers identified a admit for clock timely and readily available traffic related congestion information. bundle delivery, taxi/shuttle, rental car, and commuter drivers get out benefit from a real-time arranging that provides accurate updated traffic condition information and offers alternative routing recommendations corporate with an existing in vehicle navigation whatchamacallum. TAS (Traffic Avoidance System) involves software that will integrate seamlessly with multiple hardware systems. It will be introduced to the time-sensitive package delivery companies that operate in the most traffic congested citie s in the U.S. This device will benefit clients by saving them time and money. TAS&61667 will cooperate these companies achieve competitive advantage by modify their services, reducing penalties, and improving customer retention. Business success and gaining competitive advantage are and then the compelling reason to buy, making TAS&61667 a highly desirable solution.II. fuss StatementMost, if not all would agree that traffic congestion is a common problem in and around large, highly populated cities in the US today. Everyday in the US millions of people get into their vehicles and drive some to get to and from work or school, others running errands, or traveling to close and far-away vacation destinations. Many are on the road all day and/or night because their jobs consist primarily of, or aim extensive driving. People from different walks of life (who we have interviewed to-date ) share a common outrage from poor traffic conditions and a helplessness in their inability to avo id being stuck most say they hate traffic, regard they didnt have to ever get on the road during rushing hour, cant wait until I start working from kinsfolk to avoid the hours in traffic hell Rush hour / top side travel times, accidents, road construction, and detours are among the most common reasons for traffic problems, alone regardless of the cause and impact, traffic jams always lead to frustra... ...traffic advisory system that provides accurate updated traffic conditions information and offers alternative routing recommendations at ones vehicle, at every drivers fingerprints in a proactive way. This system will be integrated with an existing invehicle navigation & information device.TAS is such a solution. To develop such a solution, our company has conducted a number of customer interviews as a significant starting point for our (initial) market research and this paper will that explore the findings and study the market opportunity to launch TAS&61667 for success an d amend many peoples traffic related frustrations, lost time & money.IV.Market AnalysisIn analyzing the market opportunity we have centre on the classic model of estimating market size, deriving macro & little segmentation and settling on selection criteria that would best match with trends suggested from customer feedback.XIII.ConclusionMarket research has demonstrated a need for TAS&61667. The harvest-tide will be piloted with a small package delivery/ messenger company to ensure feasibility and customer satisfaction.

Wednesday, March 27, 2019

On the Origin of Adaptations: Rethinking Fidelity Discourse and Success -- Biologically :: Article Review, Bortolotti, Hutcheon

The article, On the Origin of Adaptations Rethinking Fidelity Discourse and Success -- Biologically, indite by Gary R. Bortolotti and Linda Hutcheon criticizes the habit of using fidelity as the defining character in deciding if an adaptation is a success or a failure. Bortolotti and Hutcheon posit a new system of evaluation by get from the discipline of evolutionary biology. Namely, the success of an adaptation is to be judged by its efficiency in perpetuating write up. In evolutionary terms adaptations are predicated on extract of the fittest -the strongest narratives are the ones that adapt to their environments and replicate by changing for different mediums, clock time periods, and societies they better insure the chances that the narrative ordain survive. The article begins with the claim from the mental picture Adaptation that, adaptation is a profound process, which means you try and see to it out how to thrive in the world (443). While the authors acknowledge that the circumstance of the film might give the impression of this being an ironic statement, in truth the opposite is true adaptation really is pivotal to the move survival of a narrative. The manifest problem with adaptation theory, according to Bortolotti and Hutcheon is the disposal of critics to judge adaptations as good or bad based upon the take of fidelity they bind with the source text edition. Altering a source text is not a bad thing -- it is needed. Bortolotti and Hutcheon both describe sack of source texts as, a common and persistent way that humans carry always told and retold stories (444). Critic Thomas Leitch agrees with this judgment and states, every text offers itself as an invitation to be re-written (16). But if re-writing a source text is a necessary and beneficial thing then what system of judgment should be utilise to replace the fidelity criterion? Bortolotti and Hutcheon suggest embracing the scientific manakin of post-Darwin biology to judge adapta tions. Biologically changing or mutating is necessary for a the survival of a species creatures who cannot adapt to new environments or circumstances will die out. As stated in the article both stories and organisms piece the common need to, replicate and change (446). The question arises, then, on how some(prenominal) change can be made before a fabrication is no longer an adaptation. When does it become its own story rather than the re-telling of a source text. Critics Hutcheon and Bortolotti claim that adaptations may change many things and still maintain their status as an adaptation as long the core narrative remains in tact.

Analysis of A Passage to India by E. M. Forster :: passage india forster essays papers

Analysis of A flight to India by ForsterForsters novel A Passage to India portrays a colonial India under British rule, before its liberation. For conveniences sake, Western civilization has created an Other as counterpart to itself, and a set of characteristics to go with it. An us versus them attitude is exemplified in Forsters representation of The Other. Separation of the British and the Indian exists along cultural lines, specifically religious/spiritual differences. Savage or sinful cultures were to be assimilated into or at the least governed by Christians, and converted. The separation amid the English and the Indian occurs when the Christian assumes the Indians are an ungodly wad, in demand of spiritual salvation, a race below their own, and entirely unlike them. This was exhibit historically by the dominance of supposedly inferior races by the Christians (English). Forsters Indians view as a seemingly rugged outward appearance. They are a impertinent people insomuch as they do not believe in the Christian GOD, rase though there are two religions, Hinduism and Muslimism, which thrive in India. This office of Indias religions, as opposed to Englands presumably unifying religion, separates England from India even moreso. Because the Indians do not believe in the Christian GOD, they are unrecognized as spiritual. theology shapes, if not embodies characterization. The British are British because of their religion, i.e. Ronny Heaslop is who he is because he is a white Christian British male. How he is outwardly polished is a construct of his Christian upbringing. Ronny approved of religion as long as it endorsed the National Anthem of England. (p. 65) His purpose, as was the purpose of English colonialists, was constructed by his Christian beliefs. If Ronny were not English (and for this papers purposes, English is specifically and continually linked with Christianity) he would not exist as a character. He is almost a caricature of what is Englis h, and is represented wholly by the standards and beliefs of that culture. In contrast, Aziz would not exists if he were not Indian, representing wholly the standards and beliefs of that culture. Forster implies that the division, the Other, is what makes an individual who they are. Spirituality is integral to that existence.The Indian people are further represented in the Englishs eyes by the exposition of India itself. The city, presumably a mark of civilization, is a rotting, festering thing that no English colonialist would consider urbane

Tuesday, March 26, 2019

Kosovo Crisis :: essays research papers

There has been a conflict for quite some eon now between the pot of once Serbia now Yugoslavia and the Islamic countries bordering them. The grudge can be traced covering over 600 years to the first encounter. The hatred between the two sides is chill out endures.No single knows exactly when the repugnance started, but the situation was understood. During the time of the Ottoman Empire the Turks were terrorizing most of Europe, ferociously converting people into Islam. The other filling was death. The Serbs at that tie were always cognise for their strong faith in Christianity. So backing down was non an option. The Serbs, until this day have not invaded other countries, only defend what is rightfully theirs. There were other countries that concord with the Serbs standpoint so they had forces that joined too. The Serbs allies allow in Hungarians, Croats, Bulgarians, Czechs, and Franks. The actual battle of Kosovo took place on June 28 1389. The Serbians of who were mostly comprised of peasants armed with whatever they had, and outnumbered, were led by Prince Lazar. Their manpower was more or less ?. They went into a full on brawl with the Ottoman Turks who were led by Sultan Murad I. their troops reached to above 30,000. Because the Serbs were defending they had the upper hand. Yet, by ane strategic flaw the Serbs lost the battle. An unanticipated flank divided the plentifulness of the Serb army and the Turks rolled over them. A very significant donation of the outcome was that both Sultan Murad and Prince Lazar perished in battle. The Sultans killer became a hero in Serbian folklore his name was Milos Obilivic. The battle itself took such a toll on the Turks forces, that it stopped thither quest for conquering all of Europe. As an intimidation, a man known as Vlad the Impaler would put the heads of Turkish soldeirs on pikes along the border of Kosovo. The bosh says that Vlad was bloodthirsty because of such acts, thereby starting the whole leg end of vampires. Vlad the Impaler is also more commonly known as, Count Dracula.In ingenuousness by numbers the battle was definitely a Turkish victory. hardly the Serbs point of view was that even though they lost the battle, they had perpetrated their cause. Because of this one fact, there has always been a dispute, and things never get a detect to resolve.

Cystic Fibrosis :: essays research papers