Thursday, February 28, 2019

Religion and Corruption in Nigeria Essay

In the constitution of our nation devotion feature prominently at the very beginning. I the preamble to the 199 constitution, it is substantiate and solemnly resolved that we intend to live in hrity and harmony as whiz indivisible and in dissolvable fevereigh nation under immortal. and then the overwhelming mighty of Nigerian are pietisms people we believe in the supremacy of God, we believe that God is the very basis of our individual lives and our collective existence.We believe in and relate with supernatural realities through prayers and supplications and through the crack of sacrifices find churches, musgus shrines and Sunday prayer houses everywhere in the land we guide part in crusades, worship sessions and might rights, we offer sacrifices and observe fast-flyinging years and religions holidays, and we so in large numbers on religion is pilgrim come alongs to Jerusalem and mecca, taking pride in globe called Jerusalem pilgrims (JP) or Alhaji throughout our liv es.While thee is noniceable decline in religion farour in may parts of the world to lay the religion inter extolment seem to thrive very much in Nigeria, as much and more company ware houses head-to-head buildings, schools, and our spirit stadia are being courted to prayer arena, and the stadia hort more religion crusades than for spiriting events. It is noticeable that street within our townspeople and villages as well as inter-state highways are a untroubled deal blocked these days by enthusiastic worshippers who flock to church and camp meetings.It is not and call for-off to state that on that point are as legion(predicate) churches and Mosques as there are streets in our urban areas. According to Norimitsa Onishi in an article in new York fourth dimensions march 13,2002 Christianity is growing faster in sub-Saharan Africa than in any other place on earth. Roman universality and the other Major protestant denomination are gaing mine follows everyday, however new churc hes are leading the boom.Within this religion firmament, bishops, evangelists pastors, prophet, faith leading and visionaries, as well as sheikhs, mams and gurus of all sorts are swelling in number and having a failed day in recent past a new dimension has been added to the throwing religions acquaintprise. And this is the increased patronage of high ranking common official who not openly call for and sponsm regular prayers sessions in contrastive churches and prayer houses prolong themselves become born again Christians and prayer erchants, often appearing at church crusades and prayer vigils with all the paraphernalia of exoteric office and some beats grabbing the microph champion to render sanctiononion homilies and earthshaking prayers. Also proper of note is that these days prayer and preaulims sessions are no longer restrain to churches, Mosques and homes, exactly they are held in government offices, in commercial buses, embodied boardrooms and in open markets. Nigeri an going active their daily businesses are seen brandishing the Bible Wkoran, the Rosary or Islamic prayer beads.The langeil bill boards in our town and cities are those colvertising upcoming religions crusades are faith healing carnivals. The exclamations, to God be the glory, praise the lord, the Lord is God, Bless you, and Alaahu wa Kbar, are often on the lips of Nigeria at worker at play from the exacted members of the subject area Executive council or Council of State to the young own who are about to sick common entrance examination.Succinctly put from all outer indication Nigerians are a chronically religions people. Unarguably atomic number 53 target perrps say about there is no nation in the modem world unit as muner religionism as contemporary Nigerian . now how do you place the religion piety of Nigeria with the endemic putridness in our society ? With all the show of religiosity one would have judge to see a very high degree of social worship in Nigeria, sinc e all world religions generally promote truth, justice, honesty and probity. hardly this is a reverse case withy us. The is an embarrassing contradiction between the high ethical demands of the religion profess by majority of Nigerian and the phenomenon of corruption greed and graft that has earned our country one of the virtually corrupt nation in the world. Some observes of the phenomenon actually say that corruption is so endemic in the Nigeria society that the society economic and governmental system can almost not tinetion without it.Along emplacement religiosity corruption in its many shapes and sizes is becoming in Nigeria- from the petty grafting taken in the work in the office or the military officer at the check point, to the grand corruption by which huge show contract are hurriedly awarded, not for the sake of common good, but because of the greed awarding official, who requires some money via contract kick-baiks The Nigeria society is prevalence with frauct, thiev ery and roguery even as our environment is a purify with prayers and ritual sacrifices to the God of truth, justice and holiness.Doesnt it seen a contradictory to many highly placed Nigeria hat they embezzle and misappropriate stupendous a applys of man and company, and even church funds while at the same time trying to occupy the front seats and even struggle or pray to take religion titles in their churches corruption is so froward that it has infiltrated every facet of the Nigeria society procure medical certificates of fitness from hospitals when they have not undergone any medicate testy obtain sick render permits from doctors when they hale and hearty, falsify the age of their children obtain fake certificate in order to gel them to school or obtain jobs for them, routinely sustain to false affidavit in order to obtain false age declarations when seeking employment etc. it is a statement or fast that many or those who today and drivers licence have never been to a drawing school. They simply pay for the license and declare themselves drivers thereby lay the lives of genuine drivers into jeopardy.Many of our country men who flock our churches on Sundays and converge the mosque on Fridays are constantly involve in such fallacious activities as evading levy, issuing and obtaining of take receipts, over invoicing and under invoicing importation of take drugs, petty and large scale bribery, take anclit report, adverse fee frond, ete. alone these practices are so common place so inside dispersed that many Nigerian youths can not decipher between good eril or between what is right and wrong. As a result, corruption in Nigeria has been described as system, and the consequence are legion corruption has bred in efficiency and diminished productivity in both the public and private sectors of the economy.It has discourage investment, fuelled capital flight, increased unemployment and inflation, created and acute degree of poverty, brought about a severe d ecline in the quality of life and life expectation in Nigeria and presumption Nigeria and Nigeria a terribly bad image in the cornity of Nations. Infant corruption is an affront on human dignity and an ravishment on the human conscience apart from being a negation of the Christian rocation to promote holiness and righteousness in the world. Are they truly Christians? This fountainhead is pertinent and fundamental because many of our people who engage in the strident practices enumerated above would like to be seen as pious Christians. But really are they?Do they really crawl in the God of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, the God of holiness and righteousness, who in Leviticus 192 says be holy for the Lord am holy Do they really know the God of Moses and Joshua who on mount Siriat presented the ten commandment as the tempt of his contract with him people insistency that fidelity to this ethical code is what will distinguish his people from others? Do Nigerian who claim to worship Go d, but who at the same time offer and take bribe, defraud, evade tax and circumvent justice know the God of Mosses who in Exodus 228 says You will take back no bribes, for a bribe blinds the clear sighted and is the cause of the ruination of the upright.Do they know the God of the prophets who in Isaiah 3315 says that the soul who will be qualified to be in his presence is the one who acts uprightly and speaks honestly, who scorns to be rich by extortion, who rejects bribes out of hand, who refuses to listen to propose involving bloodshed and shuts his eyes rather than countenance crime. Do Nigerian worshippers who commit a daily show of their religiosity known that what the Lord truly require of us is to love terekerly, to do justice and to work basely by me God (Micah68 John the Baptist while preparing for the coming of our Lord Jesus Christ crudemned the kind-hearted of religion that thrives side by side with corruption as empty ritualism.In his addrer to those who gathere d to listen to him, amongst whom were solders and tax collectors, he admonished Exalt no more than the appointed rate No intimidation. No Excntinu be content with your pay Luke 313-14. Jesus himself denounced the kind of religions practice that was not matched by high moral and ethical standards in realize that not all those who claim to be Christians will enter the kingdom of heaven but only those who do the will of the mystify Mathew 5. This Christianity make no room for crooks and fraudsters. It has no place for those who offered take bribes. existent Christianity does not accommodate the cnetire of settlement in Nigeria to day.Therefore, faced with the contradiction and the astonishment of a booming Christianity in the most of an environment that stinks with corruption and indiscipline, one is poise to conclude that what is spreading like wildfire in contemporary Nigeria is not genuine Christianity at all, but a masc movement with elements of Christian ritualism, one that is in large measure shallow, superficial, noisy and devoid of substance and depth. normal Christianity in Nigeria is often Materialistic and individualistic in orientation, with an in likely high sense of devotion to the cult of material and physical prosperity, achievement and healing, and with little or no attention at all given to the social morality of the believing persons.

Decoding the PMP?® Exam

PM Introduction Since the early asses, protrude managers have alert for the hurl Management Professional (emailprotected) testination through intense necessitate of the consider Management Institutes (emailprotected) A give to the Project Management personate of Knowledge (emailprotected Guide). Throw in a few ancillary primers and wherefore take practice exam after practice exam and youve got a good chance of passing.What this approach lacks is an intuitive understanding of what it takes to put the emailprotected Guide into practice. M distributively fresh-faced Amps ordure experience inefficiencies and extra ch allenges early on, until they overcome this damage with on-the-Job experience. Depending on the scope and objectives of your purge, this could have business-wide ramifications. Why learn from your mistakes when you roll in the hay prevent them? The Task- learning method* of PM Exam preparation offers a late approach that is more effective and offers more ben efits than Just getting you fix to pass the exam.The Task-Skill mode prep atomic number 18s candidates through intensive review of the expected roles and responsibilities of a Certified Project Management Professional as identified in Mis PM Role Delineations discover (REDS), also known as the PM Exam Blueprint. Armed with a fundamental understanding of on-the-Job requirements, you go out better understand PM Exam questions and achieve higher boilersuit scores. Whats more, youll be ready to immediately have an impact on your projects.The Task-Skill Method Revealed The Task-Skill Method is the result of more than a decade of lessons learned and transition improvement. The breakthrough change lies in the foundational approach. While traditional PM Exam prep techniques prep are you to pass by essentially caching to the exam, the pertly Task-Skill Method prepares you by t separatelying to the role of a PM The . Task-Skill Method distillery incorporates significant MAMBO Guide st udy, exam-taking skills and practice exams. However, they are used as consultation standards and study or practice aids, rather than foundational requisites.While just about traditional approaches are built around the framework of Knowledge Areas, Process Groups and Process Inputs, Tools and Techniques and Outputs, the new Task-Skill Method is built around the framework of the 37 private Tasks and 65 man-to-man PM Knowledge/Skill narrow spiles of the PM Exam Blueprint. These are well defined and generally form the roles and responsibilities of a PM after(prenominal) . Taking into consideration overlap and redundancy, the Task-Skill Method boils down to 28 individual Tasks and 28 individual Knowledge/Skill Sets.Whats more, these Tasks and Knowledge/Skill Sets mete out as the foundation for all questions on the PM Exam, virtually eliminating any surprises. The 2012 PM pulse of the Profession study found that organizations with more than 35% PM certified project managers had be tter project performance. Keeping It wide-eyed The Task-Skill Method reduces the amount of information you need to consume, sousing your objectives on what matters most and speeding up prep time. With traditional approaches, you can study up to 100 hours or more, but with the new Task-Skill Method, preparation time can be decreased by at least 25%.In a facilitated classroom environment, preparation time can require as bitty as 35-40 hours. Forty percent of your preparation time should be focus on the 28 PM Tasks and another 40% on the 28 PM Knowledge/Skill Sets. All should be clearly identified, understood, canvass and sufficiently mastered. You should focus on understanding when and where each Task is typically performed across the project lifestyle and here each Skill Set is most essential. The remaining 20% of your time should be devoted to PM practice exams. This will hone your test-taking skills and serve as an additional information resource.For example, in a 60-hour, sel f-paced, self-study plan, 12 hours would be devoted to Practice Exams, 24 hours to PM Tasks and 24 hours to PM Knowledge/Skill Sets. A chop-chop Look at the Exam The PM Certification Exam is a demonstration of your suitability to function as a Certified Project Management Professional. The exam includes 200 questions, many of them situational. Your score reflects your ability to mighty identify recognized best practices 2 use proper speech and 3 use logical reasoning to apply appropriate tools and techniques in given situations.PM Practice Exams 28 PM Tasks Knowledge/ Skill sets To watch you are truly deserving of the PM Credential, many questions are on purpose made extra challenging. If you pass, you are awarded the PM Credential. If not, you can retake the exam up to three times in a one-year period. The Tasks and Skill Sets identified in the Task-Skill Method serve as the foundation for all questions on the PM Exam. Must-Know PM Tasks As a PM you may be expected to perfor m en or all of these 28 identified PM Tasks at various times during your project guidance career.The PM Exam will thoroughly test your understanding of each one by requiring you to demonstrate adequate knowledge of recognized best practices with respect to each Task. The PM Exam Blueprint identifies 37 individual PM Tasks. With many Tasks, there is overlap and some redundancy. For organization, efficiency and mulish study purposes, the new Task-Skill Method effectively consolidates the 37 Blueprint Tasks to 28. pursual is a detailed list of each must-know PM Task and the gibe study aids. Evaluate Project Feasibility It is essential to establish a high-level understanding of the project early on.Is the project high risk, paltry risk, straightforward, complex? What constraints and assumptions are in consideration? How will you structure the project life cycle? What strategies will work? Study emailprotected Guide sections 3. 3 and 4. 1 Perform a Stakeholder Analysis Managing sta keholder expectations is considered the top priority each and every day by many Amps. Study emailprotected Guide section 10. 1 3 Develop a Project Charter A Project Charter is the formal document intended to authorize a project (or project phase).It briefly describes high-level project characteristics and identifies/authorizes the project manager. Study emailprotected Guide section 3. 3 and 4. 1 4 Define Project Deliverables It is essential to get a firm understanding of the project scope-?what the project is and what it isnt-?early in project planning. Study emailprotected Guide sections 5. 1 and 5. 2 5 Create a Work Breakdown Structure once scope has been determined and agreed upon among key stakeholders, it should be broken down into manageable pieces.

Wednesday, February 27, 2019

“I Wandered Lonely as a Cloud” by William Wordsworth Essay

pot can be very imaginative and picture the wildest scenes in their heads. A poesy that supports this is I Wandered Lonely as a horde, by William Wordsworth. This song is written from the first person view of the person lying on a couch in the house, using a pleasant and calm tone. The person pictures two main scenes (1) nature with trees, daffodils, and hills, and (2) space with stars and the Milky Way. William Wordsworth uses synecdochical language such as personification through out the completely poem to bring the nouns to life. I Wandered Lonely as a Cloud shows how people can doze off easily have no limits to how far their visual sensation can go.The poet starts off with I wandered lonely as a maculate, showing that the narrator is dozing off. This shows how easily ones discernment can become off track and dream about something else that is to a greater extent interesting to the person. Then the poet writes that the cloud floats on high oer vales and hills giving the narrator a view of nature from above. The narrator sees umteen things such as a crowd, a host, of golden daffodils, beside the lake, beneath the trees, zip and spring in the breeze. The first stanza itself shows that there are no limits to vision and how easily one can doze off into dreamland.To add on to the imagination, the poet uses figurative language to help the poem to be more kindle and to give the poem life. For example, golden daffodils or sprightly dance are some figurative language that is in the poem. One very not bad(predicate) example of a personification that is employ in the poem is And hence my heart with pleasure fills, and dances with the daffodils, which tells the reader that the joyous heart of the narrator is dancing with the daffodils. These are just a few figurative speeches that William Wordsworth used to shed light on the poem livelier and pleasant.The poem I wandered lonely as a cloud is a poem that describes the imagination of people and that th ere are no limits to imagination. In this poem, the narrator first starts off in earths nature, then zooms out to the Milky Way in the universe. All of this imagination occurs on the couch of the narrators house. To add on to the imagination, William Wordsworth used figurative language to spice up or make the poem livelier. In conclusion,people can picture the wildest pictures in their heads, with no limits to imagination.

The Chinese Massacre of 1603

The massacre of 1603 Chinese cognizance of the Spaniards in the Philippines Jose Eugenio Borao field Taiwan University From a historiographic point of view, the incident of 1603 acquires particular(prenominal) significance in the long atomic reactored and tragic history of Chinese massacres in the Philippines. For comp ard to undefiledly the tarry, this has been the best chronicled, non single(prenominal) in Spanish, b bely wish wellwise in Chinese sources. Moreover, ii accord in the pre playactation of facts and ar alike in the saying of pull d testifyts.When these sourcesespeci either(prenominal) in ally the Chinese acquire off their rate of the massacre, they refer to a remote, possibly plane un tie in, incident that is, nevertheless, significant. The tension started in 1593, when 250 Chinese were forcibly recruited to row the ships which Gomez Perez Dasmarinas, then(prenominal) Philippine regulator general, move to conquer the Moluccas Islands. Soon a fter they send sail, the Chinese in the rowlock ship symbolized a mutiny, assassinated Dasmarinas, and took over the vessel. Weeks later, the son of the bump off regulator, Luis Perez Dasmarinas, then tail endd in Cebu, desire vengeance to fall on the heads of the culprits.To do this, he asked for assistance from the Chinese authorities of Fujian, who wel get downd the young Dasmarinas ambassadors and offered them their abet as thoroughly. The guerilla episode happened 10 historic period later, in the alternate of 1603, when 3 worlddarins arrived in capital of the Philippines on a unusual relegating to reconnoiter a upsurge of funds abundant with trees that bore gold. This foretell raised the suspicion of the Spaniards in the Philippines, already so accustomed to intermittent threats of conquest, particularly from the Nipponese. They concluded that this was probably an advance caller for a in store(predicate) invasion of capital of the Philippines.At that ti me, the Chinese in this urban center were al to the highest degree 10 generation the pattern of Spaniards. The third ta poufs, the Sangley become, happened in autumn of that equal grade. The reasons for this uprising keep un sluttish. The motives range from the desire of the Chinese to dominate manila paper, to their needinessing to abort the Spaniards moves that conditionmed to maven to their elimination. after initial uncertainty as to who would ultimately win pop issue, the ascent was quelled by the Spaniards who, together with Filipino and Japanese troops, massacred ab bulge 20,000 Chinese.Both our sources in addition point to a much(prenominal) or less rough- supply epilogue. After the Spaniards first attempts at reconciliation and mainland Chinas in raynant reactions, both parties r apieceed a new compromise and the agitation easily vanished as though vigour had happened. Former contend relations were resumed, allowing the Chinese to settle over again i n manilla paper, even if both sides harbored grudges against each(prenominal) other for what had happened before. What I at once propose is to try to hold together musical themes on the massacre, both from the cognise Spanish sources and from the Chinese founts.The comparison whitethorn allow us to fracture lowstand the remote and proximate causes of the tragedy of 1603. Itinerario, vol. 23, none 1, 1998, pp. 22-39. 1 The sources The Spanish gayuscript sources which document the massacre ar put together in their entirety in the General Archive of the Indies and were published almost completely in the Colin & Pastells, that is to say, the new edition of the work of Colin, d one and barely when(a) by Pastells in 19001. or so of them were reproduced immediately afterwarfareds and translated to English, in Blair & Robertson,2 and again soon after by Pastells in his joint work with Navas. These sources may be classified into both those released during the eventwhich serv ed as news updatesor unmindfully after the incident, broad a global view of what had happened and those that appear in the prevails that came come out of the closet virtually that time, situating the incident within the general context of Philippine history, as Morga4 does in his book, or as part of the conquest of the Moluccas, as Argensola5 approached it in his. The garner and reports from the liners of the Royal Audiencia of Manila, and those of the superiors of the unlike religious orders belong to the first type.These documents intend to fertilise personal viewpoints which, despite the fact that they contest each other, atomic number 18 non contradictory scarcely rather complimentary. Of course, all deplore the massacre even if they deem it a justified, though exaggerated, measure. At the homogeneous time, they differ chiefly in the analysis of the means that could entertain been swall stimulate to avoid it, or of the actions that indirectly provoke it. Argenso la tries to consolidate all the information that reached the court during the years immediately after the massacre (he published his work six years after the event), and personal reports from the main players of the verbalize event.Argensola may bewilder had the Augustinian Diego de Guevara as his principal source, because this priest moved to Madrid to attend to about of his orders concerns shortly after the incident. The work of Dr. Morga, eyewitness of the events, is briefer and simpler in tackling the topics and conclusions that were universe formulated in Manila immediately after the uprising (Morga go assembleifyh over(p) Manila in 1606). The Chinese sources, on the other raft, are semi formal and in that respectfore anonymous. They are briefer than those of the Spaniards, and seem to be less defensive, even if they in any case seem to reflect partisan tendencies. They usually ack right offledge provocation on the part of the Chinese expatriates, and yet refuse to be judged by fo triumphers. These documents around generation cite specific words or actions of an officer from Fujian, although they Francisco Colin, S. J. Labor evangelica, ministerios apostolicos de los obreros de la Compania de Jesus, fundacion y progresos de su provincia en las Islas Filipinas. Nueva edicion ilustrada con copia de nonas y documentos para la critica por el P. Pablo Pastells, S. J. , Vol. II, Barcelona, Imprenta y Litografia de Henrich y Cia, 1900, pp. 18-441. 2 Blair & Robertson, The Philippine Islands (vol. XII, pp. 83-97). 3 Pablo Pastells & Francisco Navas, Catalogo de los documentos relativos a las Islas Filipinas (vol. 5, Barcelona, 1929, pp. LXXVI-CVIII). 4 Antonio Morga, Sucesos de las Islas Filipinas, Mexico, 1609. We apply here the version annotated by Jose Rizal, offset reprinting by the National Commission for the Centenary of Jose Rizal, Manila, 1961. 5 Bartolome & Leonardo Argensola. Conquista de las Islas Malucas, Imprenta del Hospicio Provinc ial, Zaragoza 1891. We consider used the following references Ming Shi (The narrative of the Ming Dynasty ), Ed. Ding Wen, Taipei, 1975, Vol. 11 (pp. 8370-8375) Ming Shi Lu (The True History of the Ming Dynasty), prepared by the Academia Sinica, Ed. Zhongwen, Volumes 12 and 13, Taipei, 1961 (pp. 12090, 123030, 12371) peal Xi Yang Kao (Studies on the Eastern and Western Oceans), Ed. Taiwan Shang Wu, Taipei, 1971 (pp. 57-60) Ming Ching Shi Wen Bien (Anthology of the Official Documents of the Ming Dynasty), Vol. 6, Ed. Zhunghua, Beijing, 1962 (pp. 4727-4728) Huang Ming Xiang Xu Lu Guo Que (National tolls), Ed.Ding Wen, Taipei, 1978, Vol. 8 (p. 4917). I wish to thank Prof. Zhang Kai for his invalu subject help in pointing out these sources, and my research assistant Lin Li-pin for his help in the translation of these materials. 1 Itinerario, vol. 23, zero(prenominal) 1, 1998, pp. 22-39. 2 generally pre direct themselves as part of an official investigation that was as intimately up transmitted officially. Also, since the events happened outside China, it is difficult for the imperial officers to depone them, which is why they put forward brief and detached explanations.Nevertheless, the massacre of 1603 happened during a period of stability in the Ming Dynasty olibanum, their capacity to inquire into and annotate an event that happened outside their shores was much groovyer than, for example, the time when the massacres of 1639 or of 1662 took change shape up. The former happened on the eve of the fall of the Ming Dynasty, art object the latter was to a greater extent associated with the Ming resistanceat that time, Koxinga7 was dying in his Taiwanese hideoutthan with the Manchus, the new powers in China, who were tranquilize trying to establish themselves in the country.The incident of October 25, 1593 Let us now take a brief look at Argensolas answer for in Chapter 6 of his book. 8 He states that regulator Gomez Perez de Dasmarinas prepared quart et galleys to attack the Moluccas but had difficulty finding soldiers to man them. When the flagship was the only one leftover to be filled, he ordered that of the Chinese contract workers who were in approach the Philippines, 250 were to be taken to man the flagship. The Royal Treasury was to pay each one devil pesos a month and, in the best of cases, they were only to row in calm weather. The regulator forced the governor of the Chinese to get these 250 men who set sail against their go forth. Finally, on October 17, the naval conclave left for Ternate. However, as soon as the flagship moved a short distance off, and the Chinese oarsmen were put to workunaccustomed as they were to the caper and spurred on by brutal and menacing forementhe verbalize workers decided to stage an uprising, preferring to die in the attempt than to continue rowing for the Spaniards. The rebellion took flummox on the night of October 25, claiming the lives of the Governor himself and a great par t of the 80member Spanish crew.The bad weather persisted, which was why the mutineers only went as far as the Ilocos region, where they were assaulted by the natives. They left behind the surviving Spaniards, among them, Juan de Cuellar, secretary of the Governor and the Franciscan Montilla, both of who managed to reach the coast. Afterwards, the Chinese decided to sail to China, but set down in Vietnam instead, where the king of Tunquin seized their cargo and left the galley to sink in the coast. The Chinese were dispersed and they fled to the different provinces. 9 The Spanish survivors informed Manila of what happened.The rest of the navy based in Cebu under the command of the governors son, Luis Perez Dasmarinas, returned to Manila. in that respect, he was destineed interim Governor of the islands. Then a strange thing happened in 1594. In retrospect, this incident seems to waste served as a rehearsal for what was to happen next. That year, the Chinese presumed that the Span ish navy had left for the Moluccas Isles. As Argensola puts it, on that point appeared in Manila a great number of ships from China, without the customary propers, but rather loaded with men and weapons.On board were cardinal mandarins, counted As regards this massacre and the problems of interpretation that arise from consulting and comparing Chinese and Spanish sources, see my recent paper Consideraciones en torno a la imagen de Koxinga vertida por Victorio Ricci en Occidente. Encuentros en Catay, n. 10, 1996. 8 There are discrepancies surrounded by Argensola and Morga, although these are much a question of expands than of arguments. 9 Argensola, Conquista de las, p. 210 7 Itinerario, vol. 23, No. 1, 1998, pp. 22-39. 3 among the senior Viceroys or Governors of their provinces nd they went to visit gain Luis with great pompousness and an escort of men saying that they were on the lookout for Chinese who were departure virtually those lands without indorse. 10 Dasmarinas welcomed them and gave each one a gold chain. In the end, he concluded that they had come either to conquer or to apprize Manila, but changed their minds when they saying the heading of the Spanish armada. Argensola adds that since the Chinese who killed Dasmarinas father were from Quan wampum, he send Fernando de Castro, a cousin of his, to that province to give an account of the mutiny.However, the trip out was forestalled due to the bad weather. It is note worthyy that neither Argensola nor Morga says that the Dasmarinas took advantage of the situation to take up the matter with the mandarins (although it seems that he did, as deduced from the Chinese sources that we shall now see). For example, the dong Xi Yang Gao is more than exhaustive in this respect. It states that Luis Dasmarinas (called Maulin here), immediately after renew his father, displace some priests to inform the Chinese authorities in Macao about the uprising.These priests bore a letter, the translation of which is conserved in the Chinese sources. It to a fault adds that the magistrates of Fujian continued to send merchandiser vessels to bring rump the Chinese who had been animateness in Luzon for too long. According to Argensola, this detail coincides with what the mandarins apologiseed to Dasmarinas. The Chinese chronicle continues The governor of Luzon provided these ships with food and also gave them a letter (addressed to the Chinese government). He verbally aired his complaints about the way the Chinese treated the murdered governor, his father.And he gave them an edict, sealed in a gold box which, together with the abovementioned letter, was intent in red silk and displace to China on a merchant vessel. 11 The one-third mandarins arrive in Manila ( may 1603) We have give tongue to that the abovementioned incident does not seem to have anything to do with the one that took step to the fore nine years later. However, the parallelism is great, as we shall now see. Th e events arising from the reach of some other radical of mandarins are wholesome documented in the Spanish sources. There are three types of information that are all complimentary.Those from the royal officials, that is, those from the Governor, bear Pedro de Acuna, as well as the listeners of the Audiencia, Jeronimo de Salazar and Tellez de Almazan, who luff themselves to be hostile to and queer of the governor. The sources of the ecclesiastics, and in the third vest, the information that the Chinese themselves give, and which they offer in esteem of the Spanish authorities. In particular, a letter written four-spot geezerhood before in the sea by Chanchian, the head of the Chinese expedition, and which is submitted to the governor who sends it immediately for translation.Likewise, two more documents corresponding to some petitions of Chinese to the Chinese emperor butterfly, which ended up in the hands of Archbishop Benavides who translated them. He move the king his own letter whereenriched after his own 10 11 Idem, p. 212. The Dong Xi Yang Kao contains the Chinese translation of Dasmarinas letter which he gave to the mandarins. Here, the very(prenominal) facts are inclined, except that the apparent motive of the uprising was more of esurience (the ship was loaded with much gold and silver) than of the cruelty received in the hands of the foremen of the ship, as Argensola would have put it.Itinerario, vol. 23, No. 1, 1998, pp. 22-39. 4 inquirieshe makes a very complete analysis of the situation12. Though real we do not know if Benavides do them Public or not, and in that locationfore if they have to be considered as part of the information that the Spaniards had then. Gathering together all the reports (Argensolas and those of the two judges of the Audiencia, Jeronimo de Salazar and Tellez de Almazan, both hostile toward the governor, Pedro de Acuna), this series of events business leader have had taken place as follows Fri solar day, Ma y 23. Three mandarins come in Manila, displaying their insignias as judges.With great pomp and an entourage of 50, they sought an earshot with the Governor and gave him a letter written four days earlier in the high seas. In the verbalise letter, signed by Chanchian, array chief of Fujian, the mandarins expounded the reason for this trip. They wished to verify the existence of a fabulous tummy in Cavite, believed to yield 100,000 taeles of gold and 300,000 taeles of silver a year. They claimed that everyone could go and dig in that location and that the Chinese have already taken a great quantity of these metals back to China.Chanchian also indicated that he had with him a fellow named Tio Heng, the man who report to the emperor of the existence of the said mountain, as well as a castrate called Cochay, who received specific orders from the emperor to investigate the matter. other mandarin was present, besides Cochay and the immediate chief of Chanchian. 13 He added that he did not believe in the existence of such a mountain, and presumed it to be a lie. Nevertheless, the Governor had nothing to fear, since it was his duty to look into the matter.Afterwards, the Governor had them housed in special lodgings inside the city. The fact that they flaunted their insignias as judges and that the Governor allowed them to do so, incurred the ire of the members of the Audiencia. From May 24 to May 26 (Saturday to Monday), the mandarins begin to mete rightness on their countrymen. Meanwhile, Salazar, the fiscal of the Audiencia, carries out his own investigation. at heart this period, the governor allows the mandarins to bring their entourage to Tondo, where the Christian sangleys live. May 27 (Tuesday).Salazar presents a report in a public session of the Audiencia. The report is okay and the governor requested to jam the operations of the mandarins so that the investigations may continue. The corrasion between the Audiencia 12 It does not go along clear h ow Benavides obtained the two documents, and if he do them known to the governor or not. The first (document) is similar in structure to the letter which the governor received from the mandarins, the translation of which he sent to the business leader, but much more extensive and detailed.Therefore the said document maybe may be a different version from the letter, made by memory (since he possibly helped in the verbal translation of that thing) and holy a posteriori with his own investigations, since at the end of that letter he said I am a man who knows the language of these Chinese and I know a dissever about their things and customs of China by having lived with them for many months and I made it also because I take up this business with suspicion and care as these can be advisors who aim badly on it because of not understanding it (Colin & Pastells, II, p. 415).The second document, different from the letter, is a remonstrance of the emperor by one of his officials. The ma ndarins presented it to the governor with the intention of full- rickn more credibility to his own letter. Given that the Spaniards did not seem to take it into account, we go out not deal with it now, but we will go back to it at the end of our study for its clarificatory value. 13 Note that the spelling of the name correspond to the free style of transcribing that the Spanish translator had of the Fujianese pronunciation of the name ( the translation of the document that appears on Blair & Robertson, vol.XII, pp. 83-97, points out in the heading which was made by a Dominican). As will be seen later , the perchder in mandarin is as follows Chunchian seems to correspond to Gan Yi-chen, Tio Heng to Zhang Yi and Cochay to Gao Tsai. Itinerario, vol. 23, No. 1, 1998, pp. 22-39. 5 and the Governor worsens. Moreover, the judges of the Audiencia complain of being relegated to the sidelines. In the following days, the Audiencia desisted its moves because the Governor at long last pub lished an edict prohibiting the mandarins from administering their justice and from flaunting their insignias.On the eve of their departure, they go to Cavite to see the said mountain. With them are Second Lieutenant Cervantes, as well as by the governor of the sangleys, Juan Bautista de Vera,14 who seems to have been around all the while. There, Tio Heng, un adapted to satisfactorily clear himself of the thaumaturgy, had the Spaniards bearing down on him with threats of death. However, the mandarins intercede for his pardon. The Spaniards grow even more suspicious. On the day of their departure, the Governor receives the mandarins and honors them with some gifts.As he sends them off, they apologize for the assemble they have caused and thus sailed back to China. We can better know the identities of these mandarins and advertise clarify the case by examining complimentary information from the Chinese sources. In this attempt to consolidate diverse information, we can conclude tha t the speaker of the group was the mandarin Gan Yi-chen (Chanchian in the letter), a centurion and was probably the military chief of Fujian. The second mandarin (not mentioned in the letter) was wide area networkg Shi-ho, the magistrate of the Hai Cheng district, where many of the Chinese immigrants came from.The third mandarin mustiness have been the castrate Gao Tsai (who appears in the letter as Cochai). Accompanying these three dignitaries were Zhang Yi (Tio Heng) and Yang Ying-long, who were the ones who informed the emperor in Beijing of the said mountain of gold. Yang Ying-long was some other centurion whom the Chinese sources accuse of collaborating with Zhang Yi (who probably used the formers garget to get an audience with the emperor and consequently win his favor).The emperor actually allowed the said expedition despite resister from various pile in his court who not only thought it a ridiculous project, but which could also be a source of trouble. According to the se sources, one magnate trust that the two magistrates Gan Yichen and Wang Shi-ho were also of the aforesaid(prenominal) opinion. In fact, the latter was so vexed that he died soon after they arrived in Fujian. The other magistrates reported Zhang Yis behavior to the emperor, demanding that he be punished for trying to cheat the imperial government and for bringing about its humiliation in a foreign land.The role of Gao Tsai, on the other hand, is more difficult to interpret. more or less sources picture him as the superintendent of the said Beijing expedition, while others show him as Fujians quartermaster general for tax revenuees, who makes a living off the Chinese oceanic trade. The Ming Shi Lu gives its version of the conduct of these three The diabolical Fujianese Zhang Yi, came up with an evil plan to propose the excavation of a gold mine in Luzon. exactly his real intention was to conspire with the castrates and provoke the barbarians.Yang Ying-long was his teammat eZhang Yi was beheaded and his head shown to the coastal provinces as a example to people of his kind. 15 Lastly, it is worth pointing out that the Chinese sources coincide with those Spanish ones in indicating that this entire trip had been the proximate cause of the Spanish suspicions and the subsequent massacre which took place four months afterwards. 14 A Chinese who arrived in Manila during the times of the pirate Limahon, whom he had served. At that time, he was appointed governor of the sangleys and was respect by the Spaniards and loved by the sangleys (Argensola, p. 30. He was also known as Eng Kang (Rizal), Encan (Argensola) and Encang (Tellez de Almazan). 15 MSL, Chapter 404 (Vol. XII. P. 12090). Itinerario, vol. 23, No. 1, 1998, pp. 22-39. 6 But, the question is if the dispatch had been an advance party or not, and if it came to study the possibility of invasion of Manilawhether it was piratical or in an organized form. At the moment, the Spaniards could not know it, although an excess of suspicions could turn itself into an untenable situation that might end up out of control. It was only what happened.The massacre of 1603 a) The preparation On December 18, 1603, once the incident that we are about to see had ended, Governor Pedro de Acuna wrote the king an account wherein he exempted in retrospect his behavior during the whole event. He begins by saying that the arrival of the mandarins had made him suspect a assertable invasion from China. This was why his eventual moves, preventive and defensive in nature, were limited to the following 1. To create space, he ordered the demolition of the houses in the Parian that was adjacent to the walls of the city.This, at the same time, change by reversal some of the walls defects. 2. He asked the mayors of the district and the magistrates of the Parian to submit to him a list of immigrants under their jurisdiction and of the weapons in their possession. They were also asked to indicate whether the se people were to be trusted or not. The order was fulfilled. 3. He carried out rhythmical inspections of the artisans (blacksmiths, etc. ) in particular, and commissioned the manufacture of bows, arrows, pikes, etc. for the royal storehouse.At the same time, he ordered that all these weapons be collected and transported. 4. Just in case, he had provisions stored. 5. He hired sangleys to build a communication channel with the end of creating a moat for the city, if ever the need arises. Acuna also points out a distinction that is also mentioned in other Spanish sources that between the Chinese merchants, who have settled for years in the Parian, and the recent arrivals who were vagabonds and troublemakers who had nothing to lose and who could not return to China due to the crimes they had committed. 6 Acuna hangs the excite of the succeeding events on these Chinese, since they were the ones who paved the way for everything, in order to bring the merchants and the peaceful peop le to their side, convincing them that the measures that were being taken were meant to kill the Chinese. 17 The Chinese sources, on the other hand, also echo some of Acunas positions, but presenting these under an offensive point of view, coloring the thing otherwise and relating these to what directly affected them. For example, the Huang Ming Xiang Hsu Lu shows that the Spaniards repared for the massacre way ahead of time, since they began to demoralize from the Chinese all the metal objects that they had. The Chinese, on the other hand, sold all the iron they found because they saw that they could profit from it. (point 3 from Acuna). 18 This same idea is found in the Ming Shi, which also adds that the Chinese were obliged to recital their names and to be divided into groups of 30019 (point 2 from Acuna). 16 To better differentiate the Chinese groups, see Edgar Wickberg, The Chinese in Philippine Life, 18501898 (Yale University Press, 1965), pp. 6-11. 17 Blair & Robertson, vol. XII, p. 154 18 HMXHL, Chapter 5, Luzon. 9 MS, Chapter 323 (p. 8372) Itinerario, vol. 23, No. 1, 1998, pp. 22-39. 7 b) The low Sangley uprising or Chinese pogrom? Another interesting issue to consider is that of who started it first. The Spanish sources (Morga, Argensola, Acuna, etc. ) emphatically state the Chinese staged an uprising. Benavides, the bishop of Manila, noted in a letter to the king that the multitude of Chinese was so great, among them, base and vicious men who spread the rumor (which is absolutely false, but not for them) that the Spaniards were handout to kill every one of them, which was why they provoked a rebellion on the night of the eve of St.Francis. They armed themselves and on that day killed several Spaniards who pursued them, among them, Luis Perez de Dasmarinas. 20 On December 18, when everything was over, Governor Pedro de Acuna told the king that harmonise to the investigations and what some of those involved had declared, it goes without saying that the uprising was instigated from China, and the stage set by all, if not some, of the mandarins who had been here. 21 According to the Spanish sources (since the Chinese are silent about it), the Chinese had also been girding themselves for it.The Chinese Juan Bautista de Vera had been constructing a more or less fortified zone half-a-league from Tondo (which Argensola calls a sugar refinery), where some provisions and arms were stored. c) The unfolding of events The actual struggle is already well known because it is what was most interesting to relate to the Spaniards. To summarize, we basically follow Morgas account The evening of October 3 (Friday). The uprising was scheduled to take place on the last day of November, but realizing that they were going to be discovered, the sangleys move it to the third of October.On this day, at 11 pm, about 2000 men (or agree to the sangley who was under torture, 40 captains to 150 men), begin to gather in the fort of Tondo. That night , Juan Bautista de Vera visits the governor to inform him of what was happening. Thinking that de Vera was in cahoots with them, the governor curbs him into prison. The Chinese, noting de Veras absence, appoint other Christian sangley, Juan Untae, de Veras godson, to replace him. 22 That same night, Luis Dasmarinas secures himself in the monastery of Binondo with a small group of soldiers.The Chinese fly into action, burning some houses and then returning to their fort. The morning of October 4 (Saturday). The sangleys of the Parian (that is, the peaceful old-timers identified with the Spaniards, some of whom are Christian) are asked to enter the city, but they refuse to do so due to doubts as to who would be the victor in this conflict. They decide to remain in the Parian. Dasmarinas pays Binondo for Tondo to fortify himself in the church with 140 harquebusiers. A cardinal and tail fin hundred Chinese rebels show up. There is a skirmish to take over the church.Five hundred Ch inese die, while the rest take out to the fort. Dasmarinas pursues them and dies in the attempt. The Spaniards are thrown into confusion. October 5 (Sunday). Realizing that de Vera was not going to come, the rebels kill Untae and coerce the Parian residents into joining forces with them. As they make for Manila, they ravage everything that comes their way. The city puts up a tough resistance and many men die. In the evening, they retreat to the Parian and to Dilao. The 20 21 Blair & Robertson. Vol. XII, p. 143. Idem, vol. XII, p. 155. 2 Sangley general Hontay (Argensola), or Juan Ontal (Tellez de Almazan). Itinerario, vol. 23, No. 1, 1998, pp. 22-39. 8 Spaniards likewise press the Parian residents to side with them. Overcome by this mental stress, some Chineseamong them, a relative of de Verahang themselves. Both sides kindle themselves for a second attack. October 6 (Monday). Another assault and renewed resistance. A Spaniard, with the help of a Japanese corps, launches an unsuc cessful offensive. An armada of Pintados suddenly makes its way through with(predicate) the river and blasts the Chinese lines with canons.They divide themselves into three and penetrate the inland. One group makes for the Tingues of Pasig, another(prenominal) for Ayonbon Bayombong and the third, the most numerous, for Laguna de Bay, the mountains of San Pablo and the province of Batangas. October 8 (Wednesday) and the succeeding days The Chinese abandon the city. The Spaniards are hot in their pursuit. It seems that the first two groups are easily annihilated, since nothing more is said of them. The third group, starving and unarmed, leave a path of devastation. Luis de Velasco with 70 of his men is at their heels, killing many each day.Finally, Velasco perishes at the hands of the Chinese who set up fort in San Pablo. Argensola adds that the native Filipinos, instead of siding with the Chinese, lent a hand in the massacre. October 20. A new detachment of Spaniards, Japanese and 1 500 natives of Pampanga and the Tagalog provinces is formed in Manila. They soon finish off all the Chinese who secured themselves in San Pablo and Batangas. The rebellion is quelled. October 22 (Argensolas date). Juan de Vera faces trial. In the succeeding days, other Chinese carry out the same fate. Only 300 are pardoned, but the rest are sent to the galleys.The Chinese sources are less detailed in describing the operations, perhaps due to the handful of sangleys who survived. It is thus more difficult to establish a clear parallelism between the two accounts, since they cite actions that are not mentioned in the Spanish sources. Consequently, there is much discrepancy. The Ming Shi relates that when the Chinese discovered the Spaniards maculation to massacre them, they locomote to Tsai Yuen (which may be translated as the plantation and which may refer to Juan Bautista de Veras strategic fort and to Argensolas sugar refinery). 3 Then, the Spanish chief sent soldiers to go afte r them (this may well refer to Luis Dasmarinas move or to the arrival of the army of Pintados). The Chinese were unarmed. umpteen were killed and the survivors fled to the Talun Mountain. 24 The Spaniards attacked the mountain once more, while the Chinese put up a desperate defense. The Spaniards suffered momentary defeat, which their chief (probably the captain of the expedition or the Governor himself) regretted, moving him to negotiate a truce. The Chinese, thinking that this was some trick, killed the messengers, thus driving the Spanish chief to exasperation.He abandoned their mountain camp and retreated to the neighboring townspeople, simultaneously setting up ambush parties in the contact areas. The Chinese rebels were starving and so decided to go down the mountain and plunder the town,25 only to be ambushed by the Spanish troops. Twenty five thousand Chinese perished in the mas23 CHEN, Mattew. O. P. The Ming Records of Luzon, in The Chinese in the Philippines, historical Conservation Society, Manila, 1966, p. 250. According to the translators note, this place is the presentday San Miguel district, although we do not see any further proof to this. 24 Ibid.Matthew Chen, in another note, indicates that this place was close to what is now known as the city of Makati. The rest of the account probably recounts the travails of the first or second group of the three groups of Chinese who fled, since we know nothing more of their fate from the Spanish references. The data does not seem to refer to the third group that went to San Pablo de los Montes and Batangas. Moreover, this reference is unusual, since there are no mountains close to the Makati area. 25 Matthew Chen seems to assume that this town was none other than Manila. But neither is this clear. Itinerario, vol. 3, No. 1, 1998, pp. 22-39. 9 sacre26. The Dong Xi Yang Kao offers a different denouement to this last(a) massacre, coloring it with superstitious, even apocalyptic visions. It says that whe n the Chinese descended the Talun Mountain to attack the town, 10,000 of them were killed in an ambush, while others fled to the valleys and died there of starvation. Then it adds There was a strong downpour while they were on the Talun Mountain, and as they stood beneath the rain, they saw something shine out in the midnight sky. There was an earthquake. The Chinese panicked and began to kill each other by mistake.The Spaniards, victorious advantage of the situation, were able to kill many of them. That same month, a violent stream in Chang Chou took the lives of over 10,000 families. 27 The aftermath After the massacre, the Spaniards carried out three steps. First, the attempt to clarify if the uprising had been in connivance with China or not, and in connection with the coming of the three mandarins. Various testimonies given by the Governor seem to indicate this, but their validity is enigmatic since they were obtained through torture. The royal officials insist on the same i dea, e. g. , Argensola.Nevertheless, it is something which is never presented as sufficiently proved and that he insists that with the principal aim of justifying the killing. In this way, Juan Bautista de Vera would have been more of a scapegoat than the one responsible for a gang (Rizals thesis). Secondly, the Spaniards made an inventory of the goods of the massacred rebels, which they placed at the disposition of their families. This was made known through a mission to Fujian second, an attempt to resume the demand trade relations. As regards the latter, Argensola (who seems to have occasionally copied Morga in this point), explains that Capt.Marco de la Cueva was sent to Macao with the Dominican Luis Gandullo to inform the Portuguese of what had happened and so that they might be forewarned of rumors of war from China. At the same time, they brought letters for the tutones, aytaos and visitadores of the provinces of Guangdong and Fujian, explaining the conduct of the Chinese a nd the Spaniards response. What happened was not only known in Macao news of Spaniards in Macao and the reason for their presence there soon reached Quan Chou, which was why the wealthy Captains Guansan, Sinu and Guanchan, who regularly traded in Manila, went to see them.They gave their own conjectures about what really happened, brought letters to the mandarins, and advance the merchants and ships of Quan Chou to go to Manila. Cuevas mission was a success, for soon after his returnin May of 160413 ships from China arrived, filling up two ships bound that same year for New Spain with their cargo. Thus end the Spanish accounts. The Chinese sources, besides being very detailed (in this case, they were interested in formulating a more complete evaluation of the event), also coincide with the Spanish references.For example, the inventory of goods is mentioned in the Dong Xi Yang Kao The Spanish governor had all the possessions of the Chinese immigrants stored in big warehouses, marked with the names of their owners. Then he wrote the magistrate of Fujian, urging the relatives of the deceased to go to Manila to collect their belongings. But there was a Chinese 26 27 MS, Chapter 323 (p. 8373). DXYK, Chapter 5 Luzon (p. 59) Itinerario, vol. 23, No. 1, 1998, pp. 22-39. 10 called Huang, a good friend of the governor, who, pretending to be a relative of one of the massacred, fraudulently went off with some goods. 28 However, what is even more interesting is the final evaluation made by the emperor and officials of Fujian who were then deciding on whether or not they should resume trade relations with the Spaniards. We came across two versions of the official act, the first of which is found in the Ming Shi The Magistrate Xu Xue-ju29 sent a report to the court. The emperor was shaken and began to mourn for the dead. On the 12th month of the year 32 (1604), he called on his official magistrates to investigate the case. These officials presented their conclusions in the court. The emperor said Zhang Yi, etc. ave deceived the imperial court and brought about conflict in a foreign land. Twenty thousand people and commoners have been massacred. They have disgraced our Empire. Their execution is not deemed an excess. They must be beheaded and their heads shown to all seas. But the governor of Luzon murdered people without license. We shall leave the officials to decide his penalty and they shall inform us of this. Hsu Hsue-ju wrote the authorities of Luzon, accusing the governor of massacre and demanding that the widows and children of the victims be sent back to China. For the moment, China did not launch a retaliatory attack on Luzon.Afterwards, the Chinese began to return to Luzon in trickles, and the Spaniards, seeing the positivity of commerce with China, did not prevent the Chinese from reestablishing themselves there. The Chinese population began to grow once more. 30 The second more extensive report is found in the Ming Jing Shi Wen Pien, wh ich contains the report made by the said administrative Commissioner of Fujian, Xu Xue-ju, who explains his move, and the memorandum he sent to the emperor, particularly the so-called Report to emperor butterfly Wan-li regarding the recall of Chinese merchants in Luzon, of the Ming Jing Shi Wen Pien31.Here, Xu Xue-ju begins to speak for himself, situating the problem, and declaring afterwards that he sent an edict-letter to Luzon after having reviewed the problem from its early stages. He acknowledges that Zhang Yis deception caused the massacre, and takes the blame for it. However, he considers the Spanish intervention, as unacceptable, unlicensed by the emperor (up to here, the anterior document is repeated almost verbatim).Consequently, the magistrate of Fujian clamors for vengeance, citing that what is most unjust in the Spanish maneuver is their non-recognition of the fact that the development of Luzon was greatly due to the intemperately work of the Chinese living there. Th ere was no response from the Emperor, and so he was sent another communication bearing the same message. The emperor ultimately rejected the move, basing his decision on these five points 1. Due to their long tradition in trade and commerce, the people of Luzon were practically their subjects. 2. The antagonism, as well as the confrontation, took place outside of China. . The merchants are humble folk and, therefore, not worth waging battle for. 4. These merchants, upon going to Luzon, abandoned their families without considering their filial ties. 5. An expedition to Luzon will only drain their armed forces. The theme was for certain discussed 28 29 DXYK, Chapter 5 Luzon (p. 60) The figure of Xu Xue-ju is both well known and respected (Dictionary of the Ming Biography, Vol. I, pp. 582-585). In 1591, he was appointed Assistant Commissioner for Surveillance in Hukuang and was soon after named Administrative Commissioner in Fujian, a post which he held until 1607.Consequently, h e was able to gather first-hand information on all the happenings, from their very beginnings. 30 MS, Chapter 323 (p. 8373). 31 MJSWB, Chapter 433 (p. 4728). Itinerario, vol. 23, No. 1, 1998, pp. 22-39. 11 in the court, creating a great tension, and its reverberations were prolonged for a long time, even until 1605, when Mateo Ricci made some comments about it. 32 Thus, Xu Xue Ju was left with no other recourse than to end this letter with a warning to the Spaniards they should be grateful to the emperor, they must change their attitude, and they should restore the properties of those who perished in the massacre.Only with this shall trade be resumed. On the other hand, if they do not comply with these demands, then they would send thousands of warships with the families of the deceased aboard, along with mercenaries from the vassal states to conquer and divide Luzon among themselves. 33 Thus ends the letter sent to the Philippines. Conclusions To better understand the general edge of the massacre, particularly, that of the three mandarins, in Manila, the proximate cause of the massacre, we must make four contexts. Besides, they were perfectly alluded by Benavides in that letter he sent the King dated 5 July 1603, which was accompanied by those two singular documents already cited in the beginning of this paper. ) In the first place, it is proper to point out that the time in which these events took place was marked by a rearing increase of piracy in Chinese waters, as well as by the express prohibition that Chinese subjects engage in maritime commerce at a time when it was gaining popularity in the international arena. Consequently, it was common practice for Chinese patrons to seek alternative and profitable solutions.Under such circumstances, Manila was considered an important center for the export of silver in Southeast Asia (thanks to the coming of ships from New Spain), just when the demand for this metal was on the rise in China. Because of this, it i s not surprising that Manilas neighbors take interest in this fragile colony, or that new risks arise principally, the unexpected invasion of Japanese pirates and, from 1600 onwards, the appearance of Dutch pirates. (Olivier de Noort). Taken within this context, Manila was regularly flood with Chinese with eyes set on establishing themselves there.Now, even if this meant a percentage to the citys progress via their artisan skills, they increasingly posed themselves as a threat to the Spanish populace, who made up only 10% of the total number of Chinese in the city. The Chinese menace was certainly confirmed in 1593, when 250 hired Chinese contract workers assassinated the governor of the Philippines and also, presumably, in 1594 when seven mandarins appeared with great pomp and veiled motives at the guide of a fully-equipped armada and was indeed alarming when more mandarins reappeared in 1603 to mete justice on their compatriots.Authors like Argensola do not doubt their intentio ns. In their accounts, they throw in descriptions of how eight Chinese trade junks arrived in Manila while the mandarins were there, assuring the Spaniards of the real purpose of the Chinese conquest. Besides, he adds, while the mandarins pressured Zhang Yi to explain the existence of the mountain of gold, he would whisper according to the interpreters or naguatatos (Argensola said)that what he had wanted to say was that Luzon had so much gold that it was worth conquering. 32In the beginning of 1605, Ricci pointed out in a letter It was spoken much in the cort, and we feared that some harm could come from all these due to the possibility that it might be associated with the Spaniards. deal Jonathan Spence, The Memory Palace of Mateo Ricci, Penguin Books, 1985, p. 216. 33 This same letter was sent to the Spaniards who translated it. Argensola published it shortly afterwards. It is interesting to note that the two versions closely coincide with each other, but of the five points ind icated by the emperor, Argensolas translation only gathered numbers 1, 2 and 4.Itinerario, vol. 23, No. 1, 1998, pp. 22-39. 12 The figure of Zhang Yi (a carpenter, according to Benavides) probably brings together the images of fortune hunter, pervert (as the Chinese sources put it) and escapist who see in Manilas regular influx of traders from Quan Chou and Chang Chou, the possibility of Chinese expansion and personal gain. Here is a man capable of conjuring his own utopiaa place where mountains produce gold. He not only ends up believing the tale, but also manages to stockpile the emperor himself to authorize an exploration. 4 Although the Chinese magistrates accused him of going out with all this to look for people to steal and to rob and to be a corsair (Chinese documents of Benavides). The conflict that was bound to take place with the Spaniardsmen also accustomed to pursuing an El Doradohad no other alternative but to erupt. In the second place, we should consider another fact that made possible the increasing acceptance of Chinese in Manila. The Spaniards, in particular, the Provincials of the religious orders, admitted that they have gone too far disobeying the royal ordinances that prohibited the growth of the Chinese population beyond 6000.This norm was obliterated by the profits gained from the granting of each new license. The Bishop of Nueva Segovia, Fr. Diego de Soria, thus commented it was a generally said that the number of Chinese in the uprising reached 23-24,000, even if the judges declare that they hardly came up to 8000, a figure which these same judges further reduced, because they are principally responsible for the uprising through the liberal granting of licenses to Chinese who wish to remain in Manila. These licenses were sold at five tostones each.There was a judge who was able to collect a total of 60,000 tostones, or the equivalent 30,000 pesos, out of the said licenses. 35 In the third place, and now setting our sights back to C hina, it is worth considering Wan Lis style of governmentconcretely, his politics of grant eunuchs as revenue agents and quarter master generals of the mines. 36 The system saw its beginnings in 1596 by 1599, it was already widely practiced. This procedure was meant to correct substandard tax legislation which, in turn, brought about a lax and misuse administration.Entrusting this function to eunuchs imposed a certain kind of general auditing system. But as the eunuchs carried out their jobs, they also interfered with the regular government functions. Besides, the posts were usually tenanted by fortune hunters and scalawags, owing to the absence of a precedent and a clear-cut process of organizing a regular staff. Sometimes, tax collection at the mines would be reduced to a form of extortion that would then be sabotaged by rival officers and more often than not, this reated social problems. 37 34 A brief observation A Frenchman, Rene Jouglet, passing by the Philippines in 1931, consultation about the treasures of the pirate Limahon, published in Paris, in 1936, an imaginative book called La ville perdue, where he mentions that the treasures of the pirate which may have been hidden in Cavite or Pangasinan thirty years before the massacre had been the cause of various Chinese expeditions, the last of which was in 1603.See Cesar Callanta, The Limahon Invasion, New Day Publishers, Quezon City, 1989, p. 69. 35 For this, see the letter of Fray Bernardo de Santa Catalina, Provincial of the Dominicans and Commissioner of the Holy Office (Blair & Robertson), as well as the adjoining note of the translator who comments on the Royal revise of June 13 (Barcelona), which restricted the presence of Chinese nationals in Manila. 36 See RAY HUANG, Lung-ching and Wan-li reign, 1567-1620 in The Cambridge History of China, Vol. , Part I, pp. 530-532. 37 We may sight the following examples. In 1599 inspector Ma Tang so provoked the merchants of Linqing (Changdong) that they b urned down his house and left him half-dead Cheng Feng, assigned as tax and mines inspector of Huguang, caused a mutiny among the inhabitants of Wuchuang textile mill work- Itinerario, vol. 23, No. 1, 1998, pp. 22-39. 13 Taking into account these circumstances, it is easy to come up with a final, registration interpretation of the figure of the eunuch Gao Tsai.For one, among the many diverse possibilities one could think of, he might have been the one who defended the ambitious projects of fortune hunters like Zhang Yi or the corrupt behavior of officials like Yang Ying-long, against the courtiers of Beijing and the magistrates of Fujian, like Gan Yi-chen, Wang Shi-ho and, most specially, Xu Xue-ju. Benavides saw it clearly since the first moment Because the Emperor has men of gold and women of silver made and invited them to drink, so he sent a eunuch to each of their kingdoms and these eunuchs, to get gold and silver for the Emperor, impose a lot of taxes on he vassals, and the e mpire of Chine felt so crush with all this that publicly the Chines here the Philippines tell us that within two years more or less there 38 will be communities and uprisings in China. The figure of Gao Tzai appears again in the following year (1604), when the Dutch were in the Pescadores islands trying to establish trade with China. He sent a mission to the Dutch in the aforementioned islands, trying to wiretap gifts of high value for himself and for the Emperor.Dong Xi Yang Kao and Ming Shi notified the governor, Xu Sue-ju, and the officials of Fujian province to oppose the actuation of the eunuch by sending the touzy (Admiral), Shen You-rong, with a battleship to the coast of the province in order to stop the plans of the eunuch, Gao Tzai. 39 It is evident that the recent happenings in Manila had been the last vindication which Xu Xue-ju encountered in order to oppose the politics of the eunuchthis time with force, as shown in the presence of Shen You-rong. 40 ers of Suzhou st aged a demonstration against revenue agent Sun Long.In 1603 Wang Zhao, coal mines inspector of Xishan (Beijing), encountered opposition from among the miners who held a demonstration in Beijing. In 1606 Yang Rong found the revenue office burnt down by the miners of Yunnan. See also Bai Shouyi and others. In A Brief History of China, Vol. I, with editions in other languages, Beijing, 1984, pp. 348-349. 38 Colin & Pastells, Op. cit. , vol. II, p. 415. In fact, it is not strange the clarity of the observations of the Dominican Benavides about the eunuchs, since he knew in detail the recent experience of another Dominican, Diego de Aduarte, which preceded the ones cited in the previous note.In effect, Aduarte left Manila for Macao on September 6, 1598, with the aim of salaried the ransom for the Gentleman Don Luis in Canton. He arrived there 20 days after, and coincided with the eunuch, Liculifu (sic), who upon knowing the presence of the foreigner tortured him and extorted from him m ost of the money he carried. In the end, Aduarte had no other remedy but to borrow the money. The entire story is related by Aduarte himself in his autobiographical work entitled, Historia de la Provincia del Santo Rosario de la Orden de Predicadores de Filipinas, Japon y China, Zaragoza, 1693, pp. 14-219. At the same time, Mateo Ricci himself recounts how one of the catholic servants who acted as a place carrier, also in 159899, was robbed, murdered and thrown into a river because he denied paying commissions, everything was probably made in connection with the legal pressureaccording to Spencewhich were provoked by the eunuchs. See Jonathan Spence, Op. cit. , p. 215. 39 This theme was studied by Leonard Blusse in Inpo, Chinese Merchant in Pattani a Study in early Dutch-Chinese relations (1977), p. 294.Blusse mentions the Chinese sources and Gao Tzai mentioned as well how a strange individual with exotic tales such as the eating of live childrens brains how Shen You-rong, an exemp lary Confucian official who wrote a book collecting the panegyrics which his friends sacred to him. 40 You can read the resume of this person already cited in the Dictionary of the Ming Biography, vol. II, pp. 1192-1194. Shen You-rong gained prestige through this action, but Gao Tzai, resenting him, opposed whatever honorarium to be given to him, and in the autumn of 1606, obtained that he be sent to a secondary military post in the province of Zhejiang.Itinerario, vol. 23, No. 1, 1998, pp. 22-39. 14 In the fourth place, and so that we may understand why the local magistrates of Fujian could not act on this problem according to their own standards, we are now going to consider the figure of Emperor Wan Li himself and his style of government, many times branded as indolent, loose and indecisive, making him disregard any unpleasant advice and the remonstrations of his officers. 41 His inaction encouraged partisanship which fostered antagonism between the emperor and his court.The e mperor became more go and his court dealings increasingly confined to written communication which, more than once, he would intentionally refuse to read. These descriptions of Wan Li perfectly explain the difficulties encountered by his officers, as culled from the Chinese sources their inability to put a stop to the exploration of the mountain of gold, their forced collaboration with this expedition out of refined call of duty, even if they knew that they were indirectly protecting detestable fortune hunters.Consequently, during the reign of Emperor Wan Li, the coastal provinces seemed to be very much cut off from Beijing, which was why the mandarins had to choose between loyalty to the emperor and lowly conflicts of local concern. And when the situation became out of hand, even persons like Xu Xue-ju (an honorable magistrate) sought pragmatic solutions to put an end to a hopeless predicament.This, at least, seems to be confirmed in Chapter 47 of Guo Que which makes a general su mmary of all that had happened in the months after the massacre The barbarians are afraid that China launches a punitive act against Luzon, which is why they sent some spies to Macao. However, the magistrates of Fujian and Guangdong did not want to report this. They only told the emperor half the truth, which is why the emperor only ordered the 42 people of Luzon stop creating more problems And thus the things remained as they were. 41 See Ray Huang, Op. cit. , pp. 514-517.We have a most invaluable testimony corresponding to the second document which Benavides translated and sent to the King of Spain, which carried a title he himself explains, Copy of the petition which the supreme magistrate of the province or the reign of hongkong gave to the King of China in order to persuade him not to listen to some Chinese who, in the year 1603, wanted to come from China to do battle and take the land of Luzon (Philippines) and that the King gave license and consent. Cf. Colin & Pastells, v ol. II, pp. 416-417. 42 GQ, Chapter 79 (vol. 8, p. 4917) Itinerario, vol. 23, No. 1, 1998, pp. 22-39. 15

Tuesday, February 26, 2019


Charcuterie originated from the French term chair cuit which translates as pissed meat. Charcuterie is k instantlyn well-nigh the world and is considered to be the art and science of the pig. Charcuterie is an ancient art that began closely 6,000 years ago (Amiotte, 2007). Charcuterie became popular during the Roman Empire when regimen started to give out sophisticated. Charcuterie was extremely popular in France during the Middle Ages. During the Middle Ages, France started many variant varieties of meatloaves, sausages, and of age(p) items that were prepared and sold in meat shops.These shops were known as charcutiers. These shops were owned and operated by people c entirelyed charcutiers (Amiotte, 2007). Charcutiers needed to know how to season and cook delicious food, but they also needed to present the food in a way that would attract customers who walked by their shops. In the late 1400s and the primal 1500s, food related illnesses and diseases became an epidemic in Fran ce. The French government had to introduce a strict separation between fisheries, lashinghouses, butchers, and charcuteries to avoid cross contaminant (Smith, 2012).The decision of separation made by the government made the charcutiers precise upset because the regulations kept the slaughtering of animals and fish away from meat markets and the charcutiers had to depend on the suppliers for product. Charcutiers were outraged at the situation the government had put them in since they now had to pay more for their supplies. The price of supplies went along with supply and demand, which did not unendingly do well with the charcutiers (Amiotte, 2007).Their ability to slaughter and process their own animals, allowed them to crack their supply and costs, had now been taken away from them along with their ability to ready different food item. The government finally decided to allow the charcutiers to give salted herring and other types of fish during Lent when meat products were pr ohibited, in an attempt to quiet them (Samuel, 2011). Government regulations were finally eased in the 1600s and charcuteries were allowed to slaughter their own animals for processing.Charcutiers began experimenting with different meats and fowl, resulting in new and different foods for customers to purchase. It also created a competition between the charcutiers, causing them to boost their culinary skills in point to present the best possible food products for their customers (Smith, 2012). The popular products and processes of the French Charcutiers afford to Frances neighboring regions. Frankfurt, Germany for example, became famous for the Frankfurter, a smoked sausage a fervid dog is an American version of the Frankfurter served in a bun. Genoa Salami and Bologna were produced in Genoa and Bologna, Italy (Amiotte, 2007). Travelers from Europe to the United States brought the techniques they had learned with them and they applied them to the natural resources they discovered. Pennsylvania became gorgeously known for its sausage preparation. Virginia was known for its fabulous cured and smoked hams. Eventually, all throughout the states, everyone had their own variation of the classic meatloaf (Bree, 2012). The authentic European regional specialties and the more recent American creations have lasted throughout the years.These food items are still available for consumers in any local or regional supermarkets, 400 to 500 years later. This incredible assortment of cooked, cured and stuffed meats, poultry and fish make up the culinary arts depicted object of garde manger called charcuterie (Doherty, 2001). References Amiotte, C. (2007, January 30). The History of Charcuterie. Yahoo Voices. Retrieved May 28, 2012, from http//voices. yahoo. com/the-history-charcuterie-179536. html? cat=16 Bree (2012, March 31). Brief History of Charcuterie. SlideServe.Retrieved May 28, 2012, from http//www. slideserve. com/bree/brief-history-of-charcuterie Doherty, A. (2001 ). Charcuterie The History. Garde Manger. Retrieved May 28, 2012, from http//www. gardemanger. com/charcuterie. html Samuel (2011, kinfolk 20). Introduction to Charcuterie. SlideServe. Retrieved May 28, 2012, from http//www. slideserve. com/Samuel/introduction-to-charcuterie Smith, S. E. (2012, February 29). What is Charcuterie?. wisegeek. Retrieved May 28, 2012, from http//www. wisegeek. com/what-is-charcuterie. htm

A Teacher’s Involvement on Education Reform Essay

Student work is constantly changing. Todays educatees argon cosmos prepargond to face the real world that requires them to eat exceeding abilities and association. On the global economic aspect of straighta focussing, students atomic number 18 asked to agnise the fundamentals and at the same sequence be able to venture critic whollyy. They moldiness analyze and make inferences. It is the teachers task to build up these skills in the students. They mustiness prep be them for any channels in the mind of the educate, in posticular when this approach is of the large scale and advanced-stake level. Education in the United States has been ameliorate countless meters all for various reasons.The changes in the knowledge and skills that be aimed for success go hand in hand with the understanding of how students learn. The affinity between the instruction given in schools and the assessment of the students through with(predicate) exams change the accomplishment goals that ar set for them and their schools. on that pointfore, the exigency for study straighten. 1 Before, society drive out get by with the basic reading and arithmetic skills. This was during the industrial age. However, we be now in an information age. Individuals atomic number 18 required to score access to the interpretation and analysis of the information that they use in revisal to come up with decisions.Studies show that the skills and competencies mentioned in the previous sentence atomic number 18 the requirements to succeed in the workplace. 2 To adapt to these changes, the sate standards of breeding skills, knowledge and behavior of the students must be achieved at a higher level. This is highly-highly- essential at the bailiwick, as well as the state argonas of science, mathematics, history and geography. In this process, student assessment is the focus and the center of the efforts on matters concerning facts of lifeal melioratements. The policymakers consider to change the assessment that will allow teachers and schools to withdraw different approaches.appraisal clear up is not an excuse for a new regime by teachers. This is targeted to the students with the help of the development efforts of the teachers. These include curriculum reform, improving instruction and getting new instructional materials. A number of policymakers and educators believe that the assessment of the students suppose the lessons that they were taught. Its true that the assessment influences the format of instruction. Contrary to the understanding of todays students on how they learn their lessons, the assessments are particularly traditional.Most exams dear(p)-tempered follow the multiple-choice and the true-false format. These test facts delimit the skill in an isolated approach. It seldom requires the students to apply what they really know, making it hard to determine what they are capable of doing in real life situations. The convertible test s do not match the content standards. Relying too much on these kinds of assessment often result to an instruction that still focuses on the basic knowledge and skills. It does not encourage the institution to reform the instruction give to the students. engage tuition will prepare the students better for the 21st century.That being said, it only makes sense that the tests the students take encourage aggressive learning. 3 The notion that learning comes about by the accretion of little bits is outmoded learning theory. genuine models of learning based on cognitive psychology know that learners infer understanding when they construct their own cognitive maps of the interconnections among concepts and facts. Thus, real learning cannot be spoon-fed, one skill at a time. 4 Educators, policymakers and parents are scratch line to realize that the basic learning abilities are no longer enough.They collect the students to have the skills they learned in school and the abilities the y need upon leaving school all at the same time. Schools are expected to assist students in developing these competencies which they will use in real and au consequentlytic situations. The establishments are expected to graduate students who have these abilities students who excel on both the standardized and the alternative assessments. During the last decade, the education community in the United States went through a proliferation of reform efforts that are standardized-driven.Its main objective is to increase the achievement level of the students. They necessitate students from the United States achieve the same level of fighting with other industrialized nations. The education community also regards to restore the common confidence in the education. Once these are achieved, then it provides the standards-setting bodies the primary slipway on how the classroom teachers can be involved in the reforming process. The federal government is a prominent player in the reforming efforts one educations. It goes all the way back in March 1994 when President Clinton signed the Goals 2000 civilize America function.It was the legislation that created the framework which allowed states to adopt and construct the education reform strategies by incorporating the three Goals principles 1. ) rigorous donnish standards. 2. ) alignment of curriculum, textbooks and teacher education and 3. ) clear incentives to encourage students to strive to meet high standards. Also, in 1987, the bailiwick Board for Professional Teaching Standards or the NBPTS was formed in rescript to articulate the standards of excellence to what teachers must know and should know.NBPTS has an assessment system that determines the eligibility of the educators for the subject area Board certification. At the same time, the Council of Chief State School Officers has accomplished the Interstate New Teacher Assessment and Support Consortium (INTASC) to capture the model standards for the initia l teacher licensure. INTASC standards are based on NBPTS standards. In 1987, the National Council for the Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE) started using the revised accreditation standards for teacher education institutions. This also reflects NBPTS standards.It calls for better performance, higher admissions and graduate standards. NCATE encourages the teachers to prepare the reforms on education at a content standard that has appeared from projects such as the NCTMs. on that point are three kinds of national standards which currently receive attention from the American government. The content standards focus on the curriculum, the performance standards concentrate on the student work and the assessment, and the school delivery standards which centers on the resources and support for the schools, teachers and students. The building figures from the consensus prominently show that the standards- setting movement of the schools and teachers has had de facto standards for the content areas that are mentioned in the Goals. These are affected by the textbook manufactures and the performance standards that are set by the testing companies. In contrast to this, the standards development projects of recent years have tried to get a base of support for any academic improvement. The social function of teacher in the professional standards development can be seen in various areas1.The teachers function as the standards. A lot of members of the NBPTS standards committees are accomplished and celebrated teachers. Classroom teachers are members of the NCATE board and the Standards Committee help oneself as the team which evaluates the teacher preparation programs. The Standard Project is in that location to develop the assessment standards. It also serves as the legal instrument for a national system of voluntary student examination. It engages the teachers in developing the tests items and refining the content standards in lay out to come up with better s cores from the students.2.Teachers are the subjects of the airfields that are new to test standards. Since they participate in the NBPTS field test, the INTAST assessments are conducted by teachers. 3. Teachers serve as the translators of the content standards. They apply this in a teachable classroom setting. By working with the scholars, the teachers build the contend standards in a state curriculum framework. They come up with lesson plans which are the operations for the standards they intend to meet.4. Because they bargain units and have professional associations, teachers serve as the initiators of the standards-setting projects.Take this for example, the Standards for Teacher Competence in Educational Assessment of Students was developed by the American Federation of Teachers, the National Council on Measurement in Education and the National Education Association. 5. Teachers also serve as the critics of the national standards that set the efforts on education reform. The se ven model standards that have been developed and supported by the Board of Education have circulated drafts of the standards documents. It also solicits the point out from the teachers and the parents. It is very important that teachers are on the panels in order to monitor the projects.The promotion of students critical thinking skills, active engagement in learning and deeper understanding of the subject matter is teaching for understanding. The classroom teachers must be engaged in teaching and understanding the lessons that they teach to the students. The research and the mystify are collaborated and are jointly reported. Teachers must also focus on the policy considerations, starting with the perspectives in the classroom and emphasizing on the need for the field-based research that are needed for the multiple contexts of teaching. However, the involvement of teachers also varies on the perception of the school leadership.There are some teachers that perceive the be of inv olvement in education reform outweigh the benefits. There are also some teachers who choose to not get involved because it office that this will influence other school policies. With this in mind, this proves that there are two kinds of decisions the managerial, which is made by the administrators and the technical, which concentrates on the goal.Most teachers prefer being involved in the process than coming up with technical decisions. 7 Then there are some teachers that argue that education reform cannot be imposed on a unilateral approach. Teachers must own their new responsibilities and roles, as long as there is a time and enough resources to go about it. Schools depend on the cooperation, relation and interdependence of the staff members that plans such as these must be consistent with the norms that already exist. 8 Schools must also consider the current staff development.There are some models that do not help the teachers in intervention the complex reforms that are curr ently being implemented. Dominant models work utterly when the specific practices or skills are transferred. The current reforms need teachers to be intellectual. They must grapple the new ways in order to implement the principles and ideas in their daily work. The five steams of reform are challenges to the teachers. 9 Finally, there are the different studies of teachers when it comes to leadership roles.There are conditions that are particularly good prospects when it comes to leadership. By investing in roles that are dignified and not simply causalityful, the organizational incentives needed for collaboration results to agreements which protect and dispel the interest of the administrators and the teachers. This is a good thing because its final result is that it complies with the policies which support the education reform. move from four different studies of teachers in leadership roles, the author examines the conditions for teacher productivity in schools.Little identi fies five conditions as particularly likely to hap or erode the prospects for teacher leadership define leadership tasks that are important, not trivial invest leadership roles with dignity, not simply power over others have organizational incentives for collaboration avoid agreements that protect the separate interests of teachers and administrators and have district policies that support teacher leadership, especially those on recruitment, selection, placement, and evaluation of principals. 10 Sometimes it is better to give movie examples.Over the years, there are countless movie releases that show teachers defying the schools rules in order to provide what is best for their students. In Dangerous Minds, Michelle Pfeiffer encourages her students to read numbers instead of hanging out in the street and ruining their lives by getting involved in drugs, sex and gangsters. In the Sister Act 2, Whoopi Goldberg helms a choir consisting of African American students from the ghettos. L ike Pfeiffer in Dangerous Minds, this is the nuns distraction for the students to make something out of their lives. scarcely a recent movie that depicts educational reform and teachers involvement best is the TV movie Walkout. It tells the story of the Mexican-American students in Los Angeles high schools in 1968. They staged a boycott in order to improve the quality of education for Chicanos. Actor- manageor Edward James Olmos (who plays Jennifer Lopez dad in Selena) appears and shockingcts in the movie. Walkout was skillfully directed and presented a simple story told in a direct manner. There is a frank portrayal of the unacceptable educational standards in the schools that are attended by the Mexican-American students.In one scene, two Chicano students were slapped on their behinds because they spoke in Spanish. This was only one of the rules in American schools which Mexican-American activists wanted to reform. They want to speak in Spanish whenever they want to because Spa nish is their language. For teachers who want a peg in participating in educational reforms, they can look at Sal Castro played by Michael Pena (Jennifer Lopez brother in Selena. ) He is a dedicated high school history teacher who is the instrument in stirring idealism in his students.He didnt want them to be violent activists. He encouraged reform but he reminded them that this can be done in a united and quiet protest. The focal point of the story is Paula Crisostomo (Alexa Vega) who is an exceptional student. She risked her graduation in order to be part of the Lincoln High School walkout. Walkout captures the passion of Paula and her classmates. The parents powerfully resisted at the earlier part of the film, but later on they slowly understood the reason behind the activism of their children. The entire cast, played by youthful performers, is convincing.It is true that Walkout is a film but this is a depiction of something that happened in 1968 which changed history. Because of that walk-out, Mexican-American students are given a voice. The teacher participated in his own way in the education reform his students want granted. Those who watched this movie for the basic time were unaware of the Chicano movement of 1968. They were surprised to find out that there was a time Universities kept Chicanos out. Teachers sacrifice their efforts and their time in order to concretise the goals they want for their students.Education reform may not be achieved with and one snap of a finger but that does not base that teachers should stop trying there and then. For this very reason of reform, teachers and students are more motivated to strive toward success. Education reform is a right that must be made the most out of. It could be better opportunities for the teachers as well as the students. Once the school is presented an option to have an education, then they must seize it. It may be puzzling at first but the absence of education reform can have dire effects o n the effective teaching in schools.Research shows that successful schools have reformed their education in relation to the demands of todays information age. By viewing teaching as the central body process of organizations, more and more educational bodies are encouraging schools to take part of education reform. By proposing the norms, conducts, standards and practices which will serve as the central intercourse and observation of teaching, activities and practices that are related to providing a curriculum and materials needed by the school, students and teachers will be open to the recognition of teachers involvement in the whole educational reform process.

Monday, February 25, 2019

How Great Was Alexander The Great?

What is a truly immense leader? It is someone with courage, discipline, creativity, remarkable achievement, and integrity. Unfortunately, horse parsley the striking does not hurt any of these valuable traits to be c both tolded a enceinte leader. Even though black lovage left a mark in historys book, it was a mark of a brutal tormenter. Alexander the Great was born(p) in 356 B.C.E. in a kingdom on the edge of blue Greece called Macedonia. (B.G.E.) His parents, Phillip and Olympia, constantly adored and spoiled him.They hired a famous Greek philosopher, Aristotle, to teach him academic subjects, politics, sports, and warfare. (B.E.) As he grew older, an inner beast was exploitation inside of him and at last it exploded when his father died, and Alexander was tho then able to take the throne. But who would want an unjust leader, who is an egomaniac, a ruthless narcissist, and whose empire would not last?Alexander the not-so-great was a psychotic maniac with a huge ego. He w as c one timeded and had absolutely no denote for others. For model, when Alexanders army was struggling across the hot, dry cast off of sand, he couldve taken them around the desert, so they didnt have to suffer. (doc.D)Also, every(prenominal) new place Alexander went to he founded a new metropolis and named it after himself.. Alexandria In total he named eleven cities after himself. Because he was spoiled and everyone treated him like he was royalty at a very young age, he came up with the idea that he was government agency god and told everyone to treat him that way. (B.E.)There were always consequences for when people tried to stand up against Alexander. One example is in the battle with Tyre, when they refused to surrender, so he wouldnt let them be and ordered his army to destruct and destroy all of Tyre into little pieces.(Doc.C) Therefore, because of his lack of concern for others and huge ego, he was proven, once again, to be Alexander the not so greatA wink reason Al exander was not great at all was because he was a ruthless narcissist who had savage relish. Evidence to prove my stamp is how hekilled hundreds of thousands of innocent people that were slaughtered by Alexander and his army in only four major battles.(Doc.E)Alexanders main goal was to bewitch many territories. Also, during the battle of Tyre his army killed thousands of people and sold the thirty thousand remaining survivors into slavery. How is that the act of a great leader? To convey on to all the other horrifying murdering he also crucified two thousand men who didnt even harm himThis shows that Alexander was cryptograph but a brutal murdererMany people query why Alexanders empire did not last. Well, I imp contrivance tell you why The first thing that Phillip the Second of Macedon did was name an successor to the throne after he died and it was Alexander. But as soon as Alexander gained the throne all he cared about was conquest and he didnt seem to plan ahead, because after he died he didnt name a successor who would expand the empire, therefore his whole empire collapsed. (Doc.E)Besides an empire as vast as his took at least 11 years of hard work and conquering to build. Unfortunately it only took 10 years to destroy it which showed what a poor job Alexander did with leadership. Because of Alexanders ignorance and foolishness towards his empire, he became an irresponsible leader, instead of a caring, great man, as the world thinks he is.In conclusion I believe that Alexander should not be called great anymore and that people should see the nefarious side of him. Though, he did have some good points in his life. For example he built an incredibly vast empire, spread Greek art and literature, and was a major influence on Julias Caesar.However, the three reasons presented above- he was a big egomaniac, a ruthless narcissist, and his empire did not last- show that when all is said done, Alexander is not at all what our history books claims him to b e. In my opinion I dont think Alexander the Great should be called a legend of history, but a moronic colossus