Saturday, August 31, 2019


CSP Signs & Symptoms Carriers of Thalasemia generally do not have any sign and symptoms which makes to realize that they are suffering from it. It can be only analyzed by the blood test in form anemia. Symptoms of thalasemia are fatigue, pale skin, protruding abdomen, dark urine, and abnormal facial bones. The symptoms depend on the type and severity of the disease. These kinds of symptoms typically occur when oxygen is not able to pass in various parts of the body due to low hemoglobin and a shortage of red blood cells in the blood.People with alpha thalassemia trait or beta thalassemia trait usually have no symptoms. But people with alpha or beta thalassemia trait often have mild anemia that may be found by a blood test. Severe Symptoms, in more severe types of thalassemia, such as Cooley's anemia, symptoms may include fatigue and weakness, pale skin or jaundice, protruding abdomen with enlarged spleen and liver, dark urine and abnormal facial bones and poor growth. Infants who hav e the most severe type of alpha thalassemia which is called hydrops fetalis generally die either before or soon after birth.What Are the Signs and Symptoms of Thalassemias? When oxygen is insufficient in the bloodstream then it causes thalassemias. The lack of oxygen occurs because the body is not able to make enough healthy red blood cells and hemoglobin. The severity of symptoms depends on the severity of the disorder. No Symptoms Carriers of Alpha thalassemia generally do not have any signs or symptoms of the disorder. The lack of alpha globin protein is so minor that the body's hemoglobin works normally. Mild Anemia People who are suffering from alpha or beta thalassemia trait can have ild anemia. But mostly people who have these types of thalassemia have no signs or symptoms to be recognized. Mild anemia can make to fee tired. It is caused by alpha thalassemia trait might be mistaken for iron-deficiency anemia. Mild to Moderate Anemia and Other Signs and Symptoms People who hav e beta thalassemia intermedia have mild to moderate anemia. They also may have other health problems, such as: †¢ Slowed growth and delayed puberty. Anemia can slow down a child's growth and development. †¢ Thalassemia may cause bone marrow to expand.Bone marrow is the spongy substance inside bones that makes blood cells. When bone marrow expands, the bones become wider than normal. They may become brittle and break easily. †¢ An enlarged spleen. The spleen is an organ that helps your body fight infection and removes unwanted material. When a person has thalassemia, the spleen has to work very hard. As a result, the spleen becomes larger than normal. This makes anemia worse. If the spleen becomes too large, it must be removed. Severe Anemia and Other Signs and SymptomsPeople who have hemoglobin H disease or beta thalassemia major (also called Cooley's anemia) have severe thalassemia. Signs and symptoms usually occur within the first 2  years of life. They may includ e severe anemia and other health problems, such as: †¢ A pale and listless appearance †¢ Poor appetite †¢ Dark urine (a sign that red blood cells are breaking down) †¢ Slowed growth and delayed puberty †¢ Jaundice (a yellowish color of the skin or whites of the eyes) †¢ An enlarged spleen, liver, or heart †¢ Bone problems (especially with bones in the face) Complications of ThalassemiasBetter treatments allow people who have moderate and severe thalassemias to live much longer. As a result, these people must cope with complications of these disorders that occur over time. Heart and Liver Diseases Regular blood transfusions are a standard treatment for thalassemias which have to be on timely basis failing to which leads to death. Transfusions can cause iron to build up in the blood. This can damage organs and tissues, especially the heart and liver. Heart disease caused by iron overload this is the main cause of death in people who have thalassemias .Heart disease includes heart failure, arrhythmias i. e. irregular heartbeats, and heart attack. Infection People who have thalassemias affected by infections which cause illness and this is the second most common cause of death. People who have had their spleens removed are at even higher risk because they no longer have this infection-fighting organ. Osteoporosis Mostly people suffering from thalassemias also have bone problems, including osteoporosis (OS-te-o-po-RO-sis). In this condition bones which are weak and brittle can easily be broken even from small injury.

Friday, August 30, 2019

Of Mice and Men – How Does the Writer Show the Frustration and Tension of the Men’s Lives in This Section?

How does the writer show the frustration and tension of the men's lives in this section? (Page 57 – 63) In this section the men are constantly in frustration which creates a tense atmosphere because of the fear of becoming â€Å"sacked† by Curly’s old man, although the only place that enables the men on the ranch to repose whilst still working on the ranch is by going to â€Å"Susy’s place†. The brothel is strongly depended on by the men because it gives the men happiness; their attachment with the brothel is displayed by announcing what the brothel consists of.George is dependant on the brothel because all he wants is a place where â€Å"A guy can go in an’ get drunk and get ever’thing outta his system all at once,† now narrowing this quote down to just, â€Å"and get ever’thing outta his system all at once†, we are shown that all George wants is to be away from is the ranch and going to the brothel allows him to simply forget all his problems for the duration of one night.The fact that George is desperately willing to escape life on the ranch shows an idea of frustration because George is aware that he’s going to be on there for a long period of time, but in the same situation, he is in desperation to leave work to become his own boss. The determination becomes frustration due to the possibility that George’s dream is becoming further and further away from his grasp.Although in this section, the tension is mostly created by Curley; when Curley enters the ranch the majority of the men change their behaviour to an awkward characteristic, because the main focus is on Curley and his wife, and the men know that Curley’s wife can cause trouble due to her flirtatious inner nature. Curley enters the ranch in search of his wife which gets the men get frustrated because when Curley is present he always insists on starting a fight with someone which leads to Curley trying to build up the tension between the men. Curley bust into the room† shows the anxiety that Curley has towards the men and his wife being around everywhere he also â€Å"looked threateningly about the room† in attempt to cause a fight with one of the men. The men also claim â€Å"Curley’s just spoiling it† by trying to threaten all the men he is causing hatred within the rest of the ranch workers to go against him.

Thursday, August 29, 2019

Britannica online

The early explorers are reported to have found wild cotton growing in the lowlands of Mississippi river and its tributaries that was generally regarded as the birth of cotton culture in America (Hunter p. 1918,pg1-50). The cotton growing in South and U. S gain precedent with the invention of the cotton gin in 1973 by Ely Whitney. The machine enabled quick processing of cotton as the cotton fiber would easily be separated from the seeds.The new revolution in agriculture came with slavery, since the success of plantation farming based on labor intensive techniques was directly linked to how a landowner was to procure workers(Britannica online. 2008). In Georgia, the whites bought slaves in large numbers. So, this expectation of a bumper cotton crop in the region ,not only changed the state's agricultural practice but also resulted in enslavement of thousands of people (New Georgia Encyclopedia). This geared up to a hike of demand for slave on the international slave trade.And as a resu lt, slavery and cotton had a great influence on the states that left indelible marks on international scene. The demand for cotton in domestic U. S resulted in developed, vast transportation networks that connected the farms,rivers and on to major ports. Though during the early days before the cotton boom of 18300s, the class difference was fused, the whites worked together with blacks, who comprised most the slavery gang of the plantations. Countries in central Georgia were transformed from slave to free labor. The ready market provided by Britain textile industries for the U.S cotton earned the country much foreign exchange. By 1920s, cotton products contributed to more than 50% of the U. S exports(Gieser James. 2004. New Georgia Britannica,). Cotton generally controlled agrarian economy of the south. The large southern cotton plantations were much profitable. The high earnings from cotton industry not only provided the economy with required foreign exchange but also resulted in a beefed power and influence on foreign affairs as the case of the south confederates. They became confident in power and influence of the king cotton,because it contributed to more than half of the U.S exports before the civil war. The southern confederates boasted that the importance of cotton would result into diplomatic recognition on the international scene and from the federal government, a recipe of the civil war (Gieser James. 2004. New Georgia Britannica). The overall growth of cotton production in Georgia between 1825 and 1860 was about 10 % and the southeast parts of the country were much preferred because they were seen as the great cotton regions that could yield the country a lot of sales from the high production that was accepted.The sustained increase in cotton production in the south of Georgia between these years led to change in population of America tremendously. In 1850 the US was seen as the greatest exporter of cotton and did a lot of manufacturing of cotton pr oducts that was more than the Great Britain industry(Hunter P,1918,pg 1-50). The cotton exports to Britain, marked the new era of industrial revolution in great Britain, this spread rapidly to other places and to U. S after the civil war in the country.There was sprout of new cities like Dallas and Phoenix that were transformed to modern urban bases,they grew rapidly as market and collection centers and manufacturing plants. Phoenix provided market for cotton needed for use in clothing,tires and fabric industries. However, the cotton farming in the south and U. S had a negative contribution to the spheres of life, in that,the immigrants from Europe and Africa flocked American cities to seek employment opportunities in manufacturing plants. This resulted to a surge in population and the creation of a class economy, where the whites were mostly employers for black slave gang.This, magnified economic slavery in states. The boast of power and influence by the confederates especially the southern confederates, was a precursor to the country's civil war and subsequently had a great influence on the political scene of the states. Political movements were formed that resulted in democratic struggles in the country. This marked the birth of democracy and the end of dark era of slavery in the states. Although cotton farming in South and USA depicted her negatively as a result of slave trade activities, it had a tremendous influence on economic,social and political scenes of the countries.It led to expanded sphere of influence by the U. S as she dominated cotton market. Most of the cities like Dallas and Phoenix expanded tremendously as a result of growth of cotton manufacturing plants. On social scene, the manufacturing firms provided employment to millions of people including the slaves as the gap between the slaves and white farmers was covered, during the cotton boom of 1830s Moreover, the labor laws were changed that allowed free interaction between the black slaves and their white lords.Reference:Britannica online. (2008) King cotton. http://www. britannica. com/eb/topic-318402/King-Cotton Gieser James C (. 2004) New Georgia Encyclopedia. Published on5/26/2004land and resources http://www. georgiaencyclopedia. org/nge/Article. jsp? id=h-2087 Hunter, P. (1918): cotton growth and spread in other parts of the world. State board of entomol. Bull, pp, 1-50.

MKTG project Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

MKTG project - Research Paper Example The business is focused on improving the comfort of air travelers through provision of a variety of comfort products for consumption during travels. The company provides Wi-Fi and other new technologies in-flight apart from the usual foods and cocktails. The availability of Sky Mall catalogue and Wi-Fi access enables engagement of customers and increases sales as a result. The target market of the business is the local air travelers which constitutes about 88% of the market. Their competitive niche of business is vast investment in technology and innovation hence creation of up to date products always. This has built on the strong bonds by customers and loyalty hence a wide base of loyal customers. The main aims is consistent growth in sales and hence profitability and shareholders worth. Management is steered by the president and vice-presidents plus key shareholders thus inclusive and participatory leadership style; leaders should also have enough experience and knowledge (Kerin, Hartley, Rudelius 2009). In addition, effective market research and marketing strategies, efficient media to relay the products through relevant modern media. Creativity and innovation integrated with modern technology an organization like Sky Matt goes to higher heights of achievements. Its target budget is $500,000 with a bulk to be generated internally. The main objective of both market research and strategy Sky Mall incorporation is to find out the views and reaction of its target market and audience and their response to the product. Marketing research is a process which starts by Sky Matt defining its objectives, then setting a plan, implementing the plan and lastly doing a review and reporting to the organization. Any organization needs to conduct research to enable it realize changes in the market place that are likely to negatively or positively impact on its product in the market. Theories, problem solving

Wednesday, August 28, 2019

Analysis of moral problem or case in business Essay

Analysis of moral problem or case in business - Essay Example It has been discussed, that the point these college students start receiving monetary benefits from college they would no longer play like amateur players or athletes, but become professionals. Moreover, after receiving cash compensation, the student athletes might lose their sportsman conduct and start playing only for money. The student athletes are compensated by allowing scholarship for their tuitions, meals, books, etc. They are also provided extra tutoring assistance, and their absences are also excused. Many sports enthusiast support the view that the student athletes should be given monetary compensation because the college and the universities earn huge amount of money through these sport tournaments and do not pay even a small percent of those wining amount to those for whom the college has received the prize money. By paying them money, the college or university authorities can motivate the students to stay in the college and play for them. This means it would act as motiv ating factor. Many even claim that the colleges are exploiting the athletes by making money, while these student athletes does not have enough money to afford the dinning, lodging or educational expenses. Exploitation would be a strong word to accuse the colleges, because the students are not forced to play for the college, and the scholarship program designed for the athletes provides solution to the problem of dinning, logging or educational expenses for any student athlete (Bilas â€Å"Players Should Be Compensated†). Critics have supported that the level of the student athletes is much higher than that of those students who play club games. The best athletes in colleges get the exposure to build professional contacts. However, the low grades in their education may lead to cancellation of their permission to play under NCAA, and also lead to an uncertain future. So paying them monetary compensation may be a motivating factor for them. If we judge it from the studentâ€℠¢s point of view then we can see that for a student athlete it is better to play for a college rather than playing for any minor club. This is because minor clubs are not well-equipped with resources and sponsorships, while if a student plays for the college, he/she can also avail the education and a college degree along with an exposure to elite athlete environment. The educational alternative would provide security to a student and assist in diversifying his/her career in future. If we view the compensation issue of the athlete from this scenario, we can understand that paying the young student athlete who plays for their college is not necessary, and by not paying them monetary compensation, they are not exploiting the students. However, the college or the university must ensure that the future career opportunities for such student athlete are bright in the sport field. They should arrange job opportunities for those athletes who do not want to pursue their career or cannot conti nue their career in sports in future. This needs to done because it goes without saying that the student-athletes are generally weak in studies and also do not get time to concentrate on academics because of their busy sports schedules from colleges. So this draw back needs to be compensated and the responsibility should be taken up by the college to set their future career (The Economist â€Å"Time for professional student athletes?†). According to National Collegiate Athletic Association (NACC), the student athlet

Tuesday, August 27, 2019

Huckleberry Finn research essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3000 words - 1

Huckleberry Finn research - Essay Example The River breaks them apart and drops Huck for a while in the household of the Grangerford; the River that brings them back together, and then forces upon them the undesirable presence of the King and the Duke. The readers are repeatedly reminded of its existence and its influence. The readers make sense of the River by witnessing it through the point of view of the Boy; however the Boy is the River’s soul as well. Huckleberry Finn, similar to other grand creations of the mind, can offer readers whatever s/he is able to get from it. On the surface, Huck is a compelling Boy. On a similar note, the depiction of social life on Mississippi’s shores a century ago is truthful. Mark Twain compels the readers to witness the River in its true form more vividly than the writers of any other narrative of a river known to humanity. However, the readers do not just witness the River; they experience the River as well. In his later years of fame and success, Mark Twain called his childhood as a steamboat pilot as the most fulfilling he had known (Champion 1991). In the everyday struggle of the pilot with the River, in the gratification of the task, in the unbroken focus on the random difficulties, his mind was completely engaged, and he took in wisdom of which, as a novelist, he used soon after. Maybe, there are only two ways where in an author can gain knowledge of the situation which s/he can afterward narrate: one is by spending one’s childhood in that situation, or, in other words, living in it at a time where in one encounters much more than s/he understands; and second, by experiencing the difficulty of making a living in that situation (Champion 1991). Mark Twain’s familiarity with the Mississippi echoes these two ways. When I woke up, I didn’t know where I was for a minute. I set up and looked around, a little scared. Then I

Monday, August 26, 2019

Analysis of the costs and benefits of China`s economic reforms in last Essay

Analysis of the costs and benefits of China`s economic reforms in last decades - Essay Example The early reforms were more definite since they were responses to definite problems and crisis of that period. In the second phase, the reforms were adapted to new set of challenges and opportunities (Naughton, p.107). China has shown a remarkable economic progress after centuries of oppression by the Westerners. Recently the China Daily newspaper has conferred that the nation is an example to all nations who are struggling to stand on their own feet (Callick, 13). In 1991, General Secretary Jiang Zemin that temporary difficulties cannot prevent the Chinese from continuing to develop (Saich, 75). This paper is the best example of analysis of the pros and cons of China’s economic reforms in recent decades. In the early 1990s, China’s approach towards economy resembled any other transitional economies with emphasis on sustaining balanced and efficient financial policies. The principles objectives were to eradicate corruption, promote a developed market economy and maintain fair competition in the domestic market. China’s fiscal policies are mostly complex and have yield varying resulting in different phases of reform. The early reforms were more definite since they were responses to definite problems and crisis of that period. In the second phase, the reforms were adapted to new set of challenges and opportunities. China has shown a remarkable economic progress after centuries of oppression by the Westerners. Recently the China Daily newspaper has conferred that the nation is an example to all nations who are struggling to stand on their own feet. It has been rightly assumed that the conversion of China from state socialism to market economy has generated pervasive corruption. With constant changing of reforms, public official took the opportunity to fulfill their personal ambitions. The factors encouraging corruption became more apparent from the pre-reform era with officials submerged in informal relationships. Market reforms in China have paved the way for growing disparity among different sectors of the society. Since policies now are mostly market based, the former strong relationship between the Communist Party and the Labor has deteriorated. Chinese economy today focuses mainly on urban regions. The transformation phase of China can be educative but only from the perspective of the overall transition

Sunday, August 25, 2019

Personal Income Taxes Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Personal Income Taxes - Essay Example The rich taxpayers are seem to be reporting almost 48.5% of their total income as capital gains and dividends, effectively getting 48.5% of their income taxed at extremely lower rate of 15% compared to that of the low income people. The trend now is that such wealthy taxpayers with more than $10 million continue to report huge increase in their income and get taxed at extremely lower rates. Legendry investor Warren Buffet has complained that he pays much lower tax rates than his secretary. John: I should agree with Mike on this point. Studies have shown that one of the major reasons for income inequality in US is such special tax rates on investment income. While the percentage of capital income is as high as 50% for some of the wealthy, it is as low as 2% for people below the income level of $200,000. In fact, Mitt Romney is reported to have close to $14 million income and the effective tax rate is seemed to be as low as 13.5%. All these instances point to the fact that current tax system just keeps accelerating the income disparity in US. A fix to this is indispensable in order to check this inequality from spreading. One option that the government can consider is to increase the tax rates on investment income. I: Taking it on from John, I should say that is already high time that the government should find a fix for this issue. Effectively, only a higher tax rate can curb the huge tax rate disparity in US. Regarding John’s note on increasing the tax rates on investment income, I should say that it will again adversely affect the small taxpayers who have considerably small percentage of investment income. Increase in the tax rate on such income would effectively leave the small taxpayers with fewer after tax profits. Therefore, a more ideal choice would be to determine the tax break loopholes that allow the rich to lower their income tax percentage and close such

Saturday, August 24, 2019

Getting university degree through online courses Essay

Getting university degree through online courses - Essay Example They can access learning materials from anywhere and anytime they log on to their university portals. That means parents, professionals, and sick students can attend their classes no matter their day schedules. The method also offers student enrichment. Students can interact as the online class is short of intimidation. Every student has a voice and the diverse ideas contribute to student growth. The students are also offered sufficient time to think before they can comment. The online learning method, however, has raised various concerns. Students lack face-to-face interaction with fellow classmates and instructor. They experience disconnect from the classroom environment, but universities are keen on addressing the issue. Group chats and video-conferencing are some of the initiatives the universities are using to alleviate the issue. The online degrees also offer fewer instructions and have no standards that regulate the program. Accrediting bodies have, however, been put in place to accredit and review online institutions and curriculum. Online learning has come a long way and more developments are still to come. Various advocates and bodies are finding ways to deal with the perceived shortcomings. Technological advancements continue to add value and advantages that distance learning can offer to students. U.S. Department of Education, 2010, Evaluation of Evidence-Based Practices in Online Learning," U.S. Department of Education

Friday, August 23, 2019

Distributive Justice Term Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Distributive Justice - Term Paper Example The benefits are obvious in that everyone potentially has the same chance and ability as a result of the use of distributive justice. The drawbacks are also clear however, in that this approach means that the individual’s property may not in fact be theirs, which can lead one to potentially question the idea of the individual’s right to own property in the United States today. Robert Nozick would argue that while there is a place for government that place should not extend to property. He promoted the idea that the majority cannot take from the minority unless they agree to it. Justice was outlined with three principles by Nozick, the principle of justice in acquisition, principle of justice in transfer and principle of the rectification of injustice. These principles were all sound, and when presented with a set amount of property and an increasing population the principle of transfer becomes important. Each individual may share what they have however; none of the indi viduals can be forced by the governing body to do so. Each individual can purchase property or trade for property from another but no individual can be forced to do so. Nozick stated, â€Å"The principle of distribution in accordance with moral merit is a patterned historical principle, which specifies a patterned distribution† (156). With less government intervention as he sees it is possible to see some parts of society have more property than another, however, if everyone is working to provide for and purchase property with the intent of generating either personal gain or simply a stable life for one’s family unit than these patterns as Nozick says would adjust themselves based on need and the natural tendency of society as an entity’s to grow and change. The principle of justice in acquisition was directly connected to the principle of justice in transfer for Nozick. He saw that some people steal, defraud, enslave, seize and utilize force to exclude others f rom competing. It was his idea that none of these were beneficial or right. However, contrary to his approach and views regarding the right or wrongness of these others actions he still supported the use of state based decision making with regards to what is fair or not. He wrote, "Social and economic inequalities are to be arranged so that they are to be of greatest benefit to the least-advantaged members of society." And yet he also believed that stealing, defrauding, enslaving and more were wrong. If we use a distributive approach as he would have us do we are in fact ensuring that the less fortunate will gain much needed items, however, we are also ensuring that the state is made to forcibly or through the threat of force take from others to supply this. While the idea of distributive justice is a fair minded one it is a difficult approach to rectify when attempting to prevent civil crimes or crimes against the individual. We see by looking at Nozicks approach that it is impossi ble to promote absolute equality without taking from someone which in turn immediately discards the idea of equality. While the balance has been accomplished with product and property there will now be impropriety within the system of law which translates to inequality within the law. This approach would in effect cause the state to be a criminal simply by its

Thursday, August 22, 2019

Strategic risks †thinking about them differently Essay Example for Free

Strategic risks — thinking about them differently Essay One of the most important aspects to put into consideration when taking up a project is project risk management. A project risk is an event / condition, which is uncertain that, upon it occurrence brings either a positive or a negative impact on the project. A positive manager should consider this as one of the ten knowledge areas where competence is highly regarded. Risk management is critical, especially to organizations working in multi-project environments and the maturity for risk is high (Loftus, 1999). A wide range of risks is apparent when working in projects involving construction among other engineering work. These risks are mostly attributed to government policy, diversity in stakeholders’ aspirations and the challenges of adding multiple projects. For a good risk management process, there must be a clear statement and understanding of roles and responsibilities, proper skills on technical analysis and the prevailing organizational factors should support the project. Project risk management involves identifying, assessing and prioritizing of risks: and thereafter putting resources to use in order to reduce, monitor and control those risks that could affect the project negatively and increase realizing of opportunities (Jaafari, 2001). This report seeks to outline the knowledge acquired on management of risk in projects among other basic knowledge gathered on management of projects. Discussion             All organizations exist for their own different purposes, and that of public engineering organizations in the construction business, the purpose is to deliver a service, which brings a beneficial result in the public/ stakeholders interest (Harrison, 2004). Decisions to pump resources into investments on capital infrastructure are prompted by needs that are meant to enhance the achievement of the major purpose. According to Flanagan and Norman (1993), the benefits of efficient risk management are evident especially in projects involving capital infrastructure because they are dynamic in nature and bring positive cost implications from the construction related decisions. Risk management should be taken as an intrinsic part of capital infrastructure investment decisions mainly because, as project, ventures get more elaborate, the role of risk management is exemplified (Kutsch Hall, 2010). Regarding this realization, some countries have enacted government policies o n constructors emphasizing on the need to incorporate risk management in capital infrastructure schemes (Uher Loosemore, 2004). Risk is therefore, in many occasions, viewed as a condition or event whose occurrence will have adverse effects on the project and may hinder the attainment of set objectives. Hence, risk management relates decisions to such probable harmful effects (Chapman et al, 2012). This philosophical approach to risk management enables the process to be broken down into four fundamental sub-processes (Culp, 2001). These involve identification, analysis, response and monitoring. The former step of identification is the most critical step because it has the biggest effect on decisions emanating from the process of risk management. Reviewing risk management, in his article, Williams (1995), notes that there is little structured work in publication about typical risks. According to Chapman (1998), as much as risk identification is critical on the risk assessment and response phases, very little empirical evidence is available at this early phase. The heavier task in risk management remains in the analysis and response to the risk, yet the reasoning stands that unless the risks are identified, they cannot be analyzed and responded to. For most engineers, the need to have a set out program is critical for it provides an umbrella under which all current projects fall so that an outcome can be delivered massively in general, and greater than the total sum of all others. A program is usually temporary, and flexible; created to direct and oversee the implementation of a set of related projects and activities for the deliverance of beneficial outcomes that relate to the organization’s strategic objectives. Several projects are undertaken under this umbrella. This explicitly differentiates between program management outcomes and project management outputs. However, there is a link between projects and strategy through the program. Risk management is becoming an increasingly important process due to external pressures in existence. However, good risk management is seen as a critical attribute of organizational success in the field of engineering. The assumption that programs are merely extensions of projects should cease to exist because many will tend to reflect program risk management to project risk management (Allan, 2008). Program management is a broad extension of the varied, yet related, projects. On projects, it is important to define one or more objective functions like capital expenditure and completion time to represent it to measure the probability of achieving the set targets. Risk management then goes on to model the project’s objectives against the projects variables like costs and the quantity of inputs. These variables are usually uncertain as time goes on, hence the uncertainty of a hundred percent achievement of the objectives set. The most ideal situation would be identifying and characterizing the variables in advance providing that they will remain unchanged by time. This would make it easy to estimate the possible risks and the consequent variance of the project’s objective(s). However, not all project variables can be identified as new variables might surface as the project goes on while the probability of occurrence of the initial variables may vary (Kerzner Saladis, 2009). The impacts of the initial variables, both positive and negative, may c hange too hence making risk management even more hard (Drummond, 1999). Certainty and uncertainty of realizing a project’s objectives are measurable, only ideally. The possibility of a project not breaking even could be considered as a representative of the whole project: and then used in turn to evaluate against the variable and try to reduce the risks involved. This becomes a basis for decision-making. Some projects may proceed normally in a stable environment, hence making the uncertainty high at the time it is conceptualized. Pro-active planning and making prudent decisions will see the uncertainty reduce (Royer, 2001). However, uncertainty in complex projects within a changing environment will not necessarily reduce/ diminish as time goes by Chapman (1998). It is necessary to keep on checking on the project’s variables and re-evaluating of the objective function’s status to facilitate adjustments in the project’s strategies. Uncertainty surrounds many parts of a project; hence early resolution of variables may not be poss ible always. Variables change over time leading to exposure to new threats and risks along the way. This fact should not be refuted and a lot of work is required in the planning evaluating phases, where most of the critical work is done. In spite of all the uncertainty and complexity surrounding risk management and project management, it is important to seek methods of improving the project’s base value (Drummond, 1999). Conceptualization, planning, and implementation of a project are complex process that requires management based on set strategic objectives, which vary from time to time. The objectives should be integrative and holistic in the sense that it caters for social, political, environmental, and community aspects (Sears et al, 2010). Traditionally, planning in project management should form the basis of planning, alongside other functions of project management including; human resource, time, scope, integration, quality and procurement. These should be the fundamental factors f consideration along each phase. A variety of guidebooks, protocols and codes of practice in the engineering field have been made available for use in risk management in project management. In the United Kingdom, the ‘Orange book’ is a framework that is set to offer guidance on basic risk management concepts and as a resource for developing risk management processes and implementing them I the public sec tor (Aritua et al 2011). It is also aimed at using a risk based decision-making on investment. There have been many more publications and publications aimed at dictating hoe risk management should look like. These guidelines have offered a basis upon which projects are appraised and their investment viability tested. This has enhanced the process and shifted its reception and perception from project risk management to a risk management strategic level (Melton, 2011). In engineering and construction professions, program management and project management came to existence due to the changing procurement environment (Cox et al 2006). In the United Kingdom, procurement of infrastructural assets was done in a sequential manner, which involved a clear differentiation in the project life cycle phases. Currently there are three major procurement systems. These systems are prime contracting, Design and Build procurement and Private Finance Initiative (Aritua et al 2011). These methods were because of the need to adopt integrative and collaborative project delivery methods. The procurement systems have features like framework agreements, the use of specifications that are output based, and more importantly, emphasis on the lifelong value of the structures (Shehu and Akintoye, 2009). The office of Government Commerce has facilitated the change in construction procurement in the public sector too. The agency’s main agenda is to ensure that policies ar e followed and enhancing promotion of the best performance practices. These systems ensure that the project undertaken is of high quality and regard set policies and guidelines. These sanctions in the public works and construction sector have acted as strategic risk management tools for they ensure quality assurance as well as proper quality management. Project management should incorporate the use of a strategy-based management approach. This will facilitate the integration of planning, risk management and decision-making hence ensuring real time real time realization of an optimum of the project’s strategic objective against its variables (Schmidt, 2009). The project’s promoters are not always the investors. Investors are not always actively involved in the management of the project, but invest resources into the project hoping to get dividends. The promoters’ objective, on the other hand, is to deliver a facility that will ensure a long term balanced and financially viable business entity. The project is therefore a compromise between the attainment of investors’ interests and that of the community (Pinto Morris, 2010). Project development should be based on a set of strategic objectives, which stamp the project as a business and entwining project decisions to strategic business decisions (Wearne, 198 9). Amid all risks, the project should be planned proactively regarding its variables and with a focus on the life cycle objective functions (Westland, 2007). All life cycle functions should be observed. These are: financial functions, customer satisfaction, and policy observance/ adherence to statutory concerns. Statutory concerns could be like those regarding projects adjacent to ecological systems or highly populated areas (Jha, 2011). Proactive planning of the project ensures real time minimization of risk. Effective risk management ensures that there is typical conceptualization of projects and their subsequent implementation using strategic objectives. It also ensures any further variables are assessed and managed accordingly to optimize the project’s strategic outcome, that which of a business entity (Heagney, 2011). Since projects are subjected to changes in objectives and variables due to external factors, it is important to incorporate a continuous risk management p rocess that involves continuous risk and uncertainty management process conducted in real time to bring value to the project manager. Strategies made from risk analysis are a basis upon which decision-making is based going forward. Objectives of the life cycle are the vessel for analysis. Ethical practices are important factors to put into consideration when taking up/ procuring a project (Ralf et al, 2014). There exists codes of conduct and these codes may vary depending on the government regulations from one country to another. These codes guide management of projects, operations and supervision of work, and the technical aspect of the project, which is building. Since the work done is of great importance, the designed code of conduct and ethical measures should be used as they set standards for the output as well as achieving business objectives with the community in regard (Haukur et al, 2011). Reflective assessment Group activities that included vast research and group projects were vital in broadening my understanding of the project management theory, which of great importance to establishing and undertaking successful projects. According to Turner (1993), scope management is what the project management theory regards. Scope management involves three fundamental issues; ensuring that an adequate amount of work has been done, avoiding doing any unnecessary work and ensuring that the work done fulfills the intended business purpose as stated. The recognition of the sequential state in which activities are undertaken helped us as a group in determining what had to be done at a particular time and by what particular persons as well as accounting for what had been spent on completed work in anticipation of costs that would be accrued in the next steps. I came to understand project management by likening it to production operations management. The crystallization of project management theory to oper ations management theories made it easy for us to recognize the resounding reliance on the transformational theory, which is production oriented. This is because project management involves injecting inputs on which transformational processes occur to bring the result, which is the output (Nell, 1998). Goals are set on the output, upon which a basis for control is placed: control systems are put in place to ensure activities align with achieving intended goals and putting improvement measures in place. This deep understanding of the theory has been enhanced mainly by the critical analysis and discourse that we have engaged ourselves with in the group to widen knowledge on the process. Relevant knowledge on management theories on planning, execution and control has expanded from these activities as well as project theories pertaining flow of production (which projects have been likened with) (Sulliman, 2014). These productions method include incorporating techniques such as lean prod uction and just in time (JIT) (Gilbereath, 1922). Ethical practices in governance for contemporary organizations are also a major factor for consideration (Ralf et al, 2014). Conclusively, exploration on the area of project management has instilled in me management skills, which are very critical in handling projects and managing every aspect in them including risk. References Allan, N., Davis, J., 2006. Strategic risks — thinking about them differently.Proceedings of ICE 159 Aritua B., Nigel J. Smith, Denis Bower (2011) International Journal of Project Management. United Kingdom: University of Leeds Chapman, C. B., Ward, S., Chapman, C. B. (2012). How to manage project opportunity and risk: Why uncertainty management can be a much better approach than risk management : the updated and re-titled 3rd ed of Project risk management, processes, insights and technoiques. Chichester, West Sussex: Wiley. Cox, A., Ireland, P., Townsend, M. (2006). Managing in construction supply chains and markets: Reactive and proactive options for improving performance and relationship management. London: Thomas Telford. Culp, C. L. (2001). The Risk Management Process: Business Strategy and Tactics. New York: John Wiley Sons. Drummond H 1999. Are we any closer to the end Escalation and the case of Taurus? International Journal of Project Management Flanagan, R., Norman, G. (1996). Risk management and construction. Oxford [u.a.], Blackwell Science.Gilbreath, R. D. (1992). Managing construction contracts: Operational controls for commercial risks. New York: Wiley. Harrison, F. L., Lock, D. (2004). Advanced project management: A structured approach. Aldershot, England: Gower. Haukur, I. J., Ingason, H. T. (2013). Project ethics. Farnham, Surrey: Gower. Heagney, J. (2011). Fundamentals of Project Management. New York: AMACOM. Jaafari A. (2001) International Journal of Project Management. Sydney: University of Sydney Jha, K. N. (2011). Construction project management: Theory and practice. New Delhi: Dorling Kindersley. Kerzner, H., Saladis, F. P. (2009). Project management workbook and PMP/CAPM exam study guide. Hoboken, N.J: Wiley. Kutsh E. Hall M. (2010) International Journal Paper of Project Management. United Kingdom Loftus, J. (1999). Project management of multiple projects and contracts. London: Thomas Telford. Means, J. A., Adams, T. (2005). Facilitating the Project Lifecycle the Skills Tools to Accelerate Progress for Project Managers, Facilitators, and Six Sigma Project Teams. Hoboken, John Wiley Sons. http://www.123library.org/book_details/?id=9130. Melton, T. (2008). Real project planning developing a project delivery strategy. Amsterdam, Butterworth-Heinemann. Nell, E. J. (1998). The general theory of transformational growth: Keynes after Sraffa. New York: Cambridge University Press. Pinto, J. K., Morris, P. (2013). The wiley guide to project, program, and portfolio management. Hoboken, N.J: Wiley. Ralf M., Rodney T., Erling S.A, Jingting S., Oyvind K. (2014). Ethics, Trust, and Governance in Contemporary Organizations. Norway: Project Management Institute Royer, P. S. (2001). Project risk management: A proactive approach. Vienna, Virg: Management Concepts. Schmidt, T. (2009). Strategic project management made simple: Practical tools for leaders and teams. Hoboken, N.J: John Wiley Sons. Sears, S. K., Sears, G. A., Clough, R. H. (2010). Construction Project Management: A Practical Guide to Field Construction Management. New York: John Wiley Sons, Inc. Shehu, Z., Akintove, A., 2010. Major challenges to the successful implementationand practice of programme management in the constructionenvironment: a critical analysis. International Journal of Project Management Suliman Saleh Al Fredi (2014) International Journal of Science and Technology. Saudi Arabia: Al Qassim University Uher, T. E., Loosemore, M. (2004). Essentials of construction project management. Sydney: UNSW Press. Westland, J. (2007). The project management life cycle: a complete step-by-step methodology for initiating, planning, executing closing a project successfully. Williams, T., 1995. A classified bibliography of recent research relating to project risk management. European Journal of Operational Research Zhang Lianying et al (2012) Procedia Engineering. China: Tianjin University Source document

Wednesday, August 21, 2019

Show how Hardy responds to the death of his wife Essay Example for Free

Show how Hardy responds to the death of his wife Essay In the years after the death of his wife, Emma, in 1912, the main subject of Hardys poems was his wife and how he missed her and grieved her death. In his poems during this period he uses a lot of euphemism, so that he never actually tells the reader his wife has died. However, the strong sense of sadness and regret he feels comes through in every poem. The first poem Hardy wrote after the death of Emma was The Going in December 1912. This poem has a highly regular rhythm and rhyme, with the important words often rhyming at the end of the lines to draw attention to them. The title of the poem is a euphemism for death, and he continues with these throughout the poem, using phrases such as vanishing, close your term here and where I could not follow. This poem is written as if Hardy is addressing Emma. In the first stanza, Hardy addresses and questions his dead wife, and gives a sense of what seems like anger and irritation towards her, that she gave him no hint that she was going to die. He suggest she was indifferent and didnt care about leaving him, and this shows how he is grieving and maybe not thinking straight. He emphases her swift, quick death as she left with wing of swallow but this imagery also suggests her beauty in his eyes and how much he will miss her. Now he regrets he cannot follow her and he knows he will not gain one glimpse of her ever anon. The start of the second stanza reiterates how he did not know that Emma was going to die and again he shows his regret that he could never bid good-bye. His use of soft sounds indicates his wish that he could give the softest call to say goodbye to her properly, and this is reinforced by his use of alliteration in the soft, wishful sounds of utter a wish for a word, while. These soft sounds are then quickly replaced by the harsh reality of the situation, as Hardy sees morning harden upon the wall. The rest of the stanza is concentrated on how much her death has affected him and more precisely how he did not know that it would affect him so much. The assonance in the gloomy sounds of unmoved, unknowing reflects his mood at this point, and again the rhyme draws attention to the important words in the poem unknowing..great going that he did not know how much her death would grieve him. The third stanza, like the first, starts with a question aimed towards Emma. He asks her why she makes him leave the house and why he sees visions of her. Again, there is a sense of irritation as if it is her fault for causing him this suffering. Hardy says that he imagines seeing her again and maybe that he is seeing hallucinations of her as he tells Emma., I think for a breath it is you I see. He tells us that then he realises it is not her, and becomes bitter and upset once again. The rhyming of darkening darkness.yawning blankness emphasises to the reader the huge emptiness he feels now that his wife is dead, and how her memory is already gradually fading away from him, in the same way as the visions he experiences do as he gets closer. The exclamation mark at the end of the stanza makes it seem as if he is shouting in frustration, at how much the experience sickens me!. In the fourth stanza, Hardy changes into the past tense, and the poem becomes more cheerful as he remembers the time the two of them spent together. There is a large amount of imagery used in this stanza, which Hardy uses to show the beauty of his wife, and the strength of their relationship. The red-veined rocks symbolise the passion and love he felt for Emma. He says she was the swan-necked one, a statement of her beauty and he describes her riding along the beetling Beeny Crest with him, maybe a sign they were happy and free to do what they wanted to, and how this contrasts to his feelings now. In the last line of this stanza, Hardy changes his language from me and you to us, which shows how their relationship grew stronger and they grew to love each other and be together more in the good times when life unrolled us its very best. Again, the fifth stanza starts with a question, but this time the impression is given that Hardy is talking to himself, and not addressing Emma. This stanza tells us how later on in their relationship Hardy and Emma did not speak. Hardy shows a huge amount of regret and sadness in this stanza, that he did not talk to her properly and that their relationship got weaker before she died. He then moves back to happier memories of the distant past, and describes them together in bright spring weather: a pathetic fallacy whereby the weather shows the mood at that time. In the final stanza of this poem Hardy appears to give up all hope and becomes resigned to the situation. He adopts a very conversational tone and uses caesura to show that he is talking, using colloquialisms such as well, well!. In the last lines of the poem Hardy feels as if he will sink down soon into despair. These lines are directed at Emma, as he again tells her, but this time in stronger terms, that he did not know how her swift fleeingwould undo me so. He uses pause between the caesuras to increase the impact of each short statement. In The Haunter, Hardy writes the poem as if it was his dead wife talking to him. He imagines Emma can see him and feel his emotions as a means of consoling himself. However, the main emotions which come out of this poem are Hardys guilt and regret and, although he adopts his wifes voice, it is his emotions which come through strongly in the poem. He appears to be haunted by memories, which may be the reason for the title of the poem. Alternatively, it could be that he sees his wife as a ghost haunting him. Each stanza has the same words rhyming at the end of every second line; know.go.do.thereto. These are important as they show Hardys mains hopes about his wife; that she knows everything hes doing and thinking, but the go shows he knows she has gone for ever and there is nothing he can do to go there and be with her. The poem opens with irony as Emma says he does not think I haunt here nightly, when he is writing the poem. This shows Hardy hopes she is there with him, but that he just cant see her; but in reality he probably knows she is not really there and it is just wishful thinking. This line also starts the theme which continues throughout the stanza: that Emma is always there with him. The repetition of hover and hover reinforces this point. Hardy is creating ideas which he hopes his wife would have about him, as a way of comforting himself. Hardys feelings of guilt and regret come through strongly in the second stanza. He did not do many of the things he should when he had the chance and this is shown by the repetition of when I could in the first two lines of this stanza. Emma says how she would like to join his journeys, which shows Hardy feels guilty that he didnt let her go with him when he went away, and now blames himself that they didnt spend enough time together. The voice of his wife tells us that he misses me more than he used to do which means he didnt realise how much he needed her when she was alive but now he knows that he did and he misses her even more. Emma is described as a faithful phantom, which suggests that she was loyal to him, and maybe that he was not as faithful to her. The alliteration is soft to suggest the kindness and beauty of Emma. In stanza three, there is a large amount of imagery, as Emma tells us how she likes to accompany him to places. There is a strong sense of night time in the opening of this stanza, as dreamers, shy hares and night rooks are mentioned. Emma tells us she follows Hardy into old aisles, which show Hardy is still thinking about the past, which is all to him, because he is reminiscing the happy times when Emma was alive and with him, and he now thinks he will not get that happiness back. However, although she is his shade suggesting she is like his shadow and always with him she is always lacking the power to call to him. We get the sense that, although Hardy is trying to believe his wife is near him, he is upset and frustrated that he can and will never talk to her. In the final stanza of this poem, Hardy is trying to cheer himself up, as this is what he thinks his wife would want. The reader is told that if Hardy but sigh, Emma goes straight to his side. This shows that when Hardy is upset, he thinks of Emma to try to console himself. Hardy tries to make himself feel better by thinking that Emma would want him to be in gloom no longer. This show he wants to be happier but he cannot so now he has to think Emma wants him to be happier as well. The Voice, also written in December 1912, is a much more eerie and less rhythmical poem than the first two. However, although there is less rhythm and structure to the poem, it still has a strong and continual rhyme. The title of the poem indicates that now Hardy can now hear Emmas voice and the poem is written in the first person, as Hardy reveals his feelings and memories. As The Voice opens, Hardy shows us his grief and sadness as he describes his wife as woman much missed. The sounds alliterate to draw attention to their importance right at the start of the poem, as this will be a continual theme throughout. The words call to me, call to me are repeated at the end of the first line and this give the impression that although she is calling to him, like an echo to show how her voice is fading away from Hardy, along with his memories of her. This repetition also gives the impression that Emma is insistent to reach Hardy and will not give up. Hardy informs us that Emma tells him she is not the same as she was when she changed from the one that was all to Hardy. Hardy believes Emma is saying to him that she is not now as she was when Hardy changed and maybe stopped loving her, but she is the same as she was when they were in love. This shows that this is how Hardy remembers Emma, when their day was fair and their life was better than when they started to split apart. In the last line, Hardy changes from using you and me to our to show that now he is thinking of them together and happy. Hardy then looks back to the past and his memories of his wife, and imagines a perfect image of her in his head. He sees the memory very clearly and includes a lot of detail to show this. He can remember her even to the original air-blue gown, which is a pleasant and cheerful colour, showing the mood in the memory. It is one specific memory he is thinking about and, as he sees it more clearly, Hardy becomes exited and shows this through the caesura of yes and the exclamation mark at the end of the line, as if he is becoming louder and more energised. The transition between stanzas is a change between Hardys happiness in the past and his grief now. The sounds change from joyous to heavy, as does the mood of the poem. The whole stanza is a question, asking if it is really Emma talking or just the wind that Hardy can hear, although the reader will know that Hardy knows the answer to his own question. The listlessness of the breeze is a pathetic fallacy of Hardys mood, and the words such as listlessness and wet mead are onomatopoeic as they are heavy and sound tired, as if now he knows that his wife is fading away from him. Hardy tells Emma she is being dissolved and dying away from him. This suggests he has realised her voice is not real and just in his mind and she will be heard no more again. The lines in the last stanza of the poem are shorter than those in other stanzas. This gives the impression that the poem is fading away on the page, as Emma is ebbing away from Hardys memories. This stanza shows Hardy is now resigned to the fact that he is never going to hear her voice again and does not really make sense, maybe showing Hardys tiredness. The pathetic fallacy of leaves around me falling gives an impression of things dying and coming to an end and the unpleasant assonance used in the wind oozing thin through the thorn gives and unpleasant feel to the end of the poem. This stanza shows that Hardy feels he cannot move on because of his memories and the woman calling. This last line completes the eerie sense given in the poem and relates back to the start of the poem, giving the sense that what has happened in this poem keeps on happening to Hardy, and there is nothing he can do to stop it. Beeny Cliff has a strong rhythm and strong rhyme, using the same sounds at the end of each line of each stanza. Beeny Cliff was a special place for Hardy and Emma that they visited together. O at the start of the poem indicates Hardys happiness and excitement as he reminisces about him and Emma. The first line is full of description and imagery, and the opal and the sapphire suggest preciousness and beauty a description of the sea in the poem, but a description of his wife in Hardys mind. Hardys description of Emma is almost angelic as she is described as the woman riding high above with bright hair flapping free. The alliteration is an onomatopoeia of the wind and the high wind suggests high spirits between Hardy and Emma. Hardy also states that he loved Emma and she loyally loved him, suggesting that, although they both loved each other, she was more faithful than he was. Hardy knows this and is therefore now regretting that he did not make the most of his time with her when she was alive. In the next stanza Hardy concentrates on how when they were together, nothing or no one could touch them. Hardy tells us that birds were plained below them and seemed far away, to show they were only concentrating on each other and nothing else could distract them. The waves are shown to be what could be a big distraction by the onomatopoeic sibilance of engrossed in saying their ceaseless babbling say, but Hardy and Emma were engrossed in each other thereby showing how close they were at this point in time. They laughed light-heartedly aloft which reinforces their high spirits and again suggests their height above everything else happening. Pathetic fallacy is also used to show the mood on that clear-sunned March day. This pathetic fallacy continues throughout the third stanza, as Hardy uses it to show that the mood is changing. A little cloud cloaked them and there was an irised rain, which shows that this trip to Beeny Cliff is like their relationship. These small changes in weather show there are some bad times in the relationship between them, but it is never enough to force them apart and these blips are just a dull disfeatured stain, the same as the cloud is on the landscape. However, although the sun burst out again, the cloud was an indication to them that foreshadowed worse things to come, as now purples prinked the main. The at the start of the fourth stanza indicates to the reader that Hardy is going from the past into the present. Hardy tells us that old Beeny is still in all its chasmal beauty. The use of old shows familiarity and Hardy is showing that he is in a familiar place to contrast his unfamiliar emotions. In addition, this line shows that, although a lot has happened to him, the things and landscape around him are still the same as they used to be; huge and gaping but still beautiful. Hardy asks himself with a sense of wistfulness if she and I [Hardy] could not go there again and repeat the sweet things said in that March. He does not use we, which shows he feels they will never be together again and, although he asks the question, he knows he cannot see her again. The caesura of Nay. at the start of the concluding stanza shows Hardy coming back to reality, and answering his own question. He repeats that Beeny has the same chasmal beauty but this time it is a wild weird western shore. This tells us that things around him have stayed the same, but Hardy sees them differently now in a worse light, as this is the effect his wifes death has had on him. Hardy says the woman is nowelsewhere; the pauses are showing he doesnt want to say Emma is dead, and he is thinking of a euphemism. She nor knows nor cares for Beeny and has moved on, but Hardy has not and is still stuck in the past. The end of the poem is very final, as if Hardy has eventually made up his mind; that she will see it nevermore. In At Castle Boterel, written in March 1913, Hardy again remembers him and his wife together in happier times. Again, a strong sense of rhyme and rhythm appears throughout the poem. Most of the poem is a euphemism for Hardys thoughts, memories, feelings and emotions as he is writing. The poem opens in the present as Hardy gives a description of himself driving through the drizzle in a wagonette to the junction. This suggests he will have to make a decision as to which path he should take, as he does in life to decide whether to move on from thinking about Emma. He looks behind at the fading byway; a euphemism for him looking back into the past. His memories show him with a girlish form Emma in a chaise in dry March weather. Although he is looking into the past, he writes in the present tense, to show how involved he is in his own memory and how he wants it to be real and actually happening. The contrast between the wagonette, a heavy, large vehicle, in which he is driving in the present and the chaise, a small, light vehicle, which he was driving in in the past, is a reference to the happiness he felt then, and the gloom that hangs over him now that Emma is dead. The contrasting pathetic fallacies drizzle and dry March weather further reinforce this point. Hardy describes himself and Emma as we throughout the stanza, which indicates their togetherness. Hardy goes on to tell us that it matters not much what he and Emma talked about on that journey, and he also states it doesnt matter to what it led. This is strange as it surely led to Hardy and Emma falling in love and getting married and he is now saying that this didnt matter. He continues the point by saying what it led to is something life cannot be balked of, so love is an inevitable part of life. He tells us that it cannot be stopped until something happens so that hope is dead, and feeling fled. This is maybe a sign that Hardy is starting to recover from the death of his wife, and has maybe realised he could have done nothing to stop it. Hardy reveals how much he treasured the moments he had with his wife, by telling us that there was never a time of such quality, since or before, in that hills story. He asks this as a question as if he is challenging anyone to disagree with his view, as he is right. The fact that Hardy thinks that this moment is the most important ever to happen on the hill, though it has been climbedby thousands more tells the reader that he is now extremely focused on himself and his wife, and cannot think of anything or anyone else but her, showing that the impression he gave in the previous stanza was false. In the next stanza, Hardy states that their passing has been recorded in the colour and cast of the primeval rocks and will now be for always. He feels that although their passing, and therefore their relationship, is only transitory in Earths long order, so only happened for a short time, they have helped to change things happening on the Earth. He thinks these changes will be left behind after he is gone she has gone already. This is a happy moment for Hardy as he thinks about the impact Emma and he had and this is shown through his pause in the middle of the last line, as he reflects on what he is saying. In the penultimate stanza, Hardy comes back into the present and reflects that Times unflinching rigour has taken his wife, and it cannot be stopped, so there is no way of going back once an event has passed. All that is left for him to see is one phantom figure, there is nothing real remaining, only his memories. He feels as if he has left Emma behind and is being forced further and further away from her; she is disappearing into the distance. Hardy reverts to the use of I in the final stanza. He looks back and sees the figure shrinking, shrinking. This repetition is like an echo fading away; to show that, although he is still having the memories, they are fading away and he will never get them back. He finishes with a great sense of finality; that he is now seeing her for the very last time. He says his sand is sinking, this reference to an hourglass meaning his time is nearly up, and he believes that he will soon die as well. The ending is very powerful and final, as Hardy states that he shall traverse old loves domain Never again. His use of old suggests a familiarity; that he has revisited his memories too often, and now wants to move on. The caesura gives the statement a sense of finality so that it stands out as the main fact to come from this poem, that he now has accepted he cannot go back to Emma, and will not let his memories and grief overcome him. The Phantom Horsewoman is written in the voice of a person observing the behaviour of Hardy, in the first person. There is a very regular and repetitive rhyming pattern throughout every stanza, which suggests that Hardys life has become repetitive, as all he does is think about his wife. Now Hardy himself knows he needs to move on but he shows this through an observer. The whole of the first stanza is a euphemism for Hardys thoughts and feelings and how he, Hardy, describes himself as queer which shows he knows the behaviour he is experiencing is not normal to him. He is described as a man I know to show that it is not Hardy talking, but someone describing his ways. Hardy is portrayed as being in a careworn craze, which tells us that the emotions he is feeling have worn him down and are maybe even driving him mad. The next few lines suggest Hardy is looking back but what he sees is unclear. This is shown as he looks at the sands, suggesting time as this is a reference to an hourglass, but there is a seaward haze so his memories are indistinct and vague. The use of moveless hands in reference to a clock show time stands still when he looks into the past. When he turns to go Hardy pauses showing his regret to leave and regret to move back into the present. The use of rhyme in this stanza draws attention to the connected and important ideas: stands, sands and hands show the idea of time in reference to an hourglass and a clock and the impression that it stands still when Hardy looks back to the past; craze, haze and gaze are also connected, as they show how Hardy is looking back but is unsure what to make of what he remembers. The stanza ends with the question of what he sees when he gazes so? The second stanza answers the question posed at the end of the first. There is a strong and clear contrast between the haze and indistinctness in the present as shown in stanza I and the clarity and deep description used in stanza II, looking back into Hardys memories of the past. This point is reinforced as we are told what he sees is more clear than today. The description used has a happy and joyous tone because his memories are warm, real and keen. Hardy sets a pleasant scene using a rhythmical tone, as if suggesting the rhythm of the sea. This shows that Hardys memories of the past are happier and he would much rather be living in the past than in his life now. The sibilance of the sweet soft scene implies the softness of his past life and points to the sound and rhythm of the sea, as does the description of that briny green. The end of the stanza tells us that he sees in his memories a phantom of his own figuring; he is remembering the past but he knows it is not real now, no matter how much he wants it to be. Hardy then tells us that of this vision they might say more because there is more to him than a man looking at the sea. He sees his wife not only there but he sees her everywhere and all the time as shown by day, night. His memories are vivid and bright as if they were drawn rose-bright on the air and they are all consuming to him as if he is almost haunted by them. At the end of the stanza, Hardy pauses, as if to think, before reiterating the same point again that he has to carry this vision, to make this point clear to the reader. At the start of the final stanza, Hardy describes what this vision is. He tells us he sees a girl-ghost-rider, using a compound word to describe exactly what he sees in his visions. The sounds in the alliteration are happy and soft when Hardy describes Emma, and contrast the harsh sounds Hardy uses to describe himself; toil-tried. Hardy also tells us that although he withers daily, and is always getting older, time touches her not and she is always the same in his thoughts and memories of her. She still rides gaily in his rapt thought, which shows that his memories of her are when she was happy and free, and that he cannot think of anything else but her. The harsh sounds in the alliteration of shagged and shaly drag him back to reality and back to the sea, which is the idea the whole poem revolves around. The last line of the poem shows that Hardys lasting memory of Emma will be a happy one; Emma is singing to the swing of the tide, and that the sea will always be in his memories of her, as it was a special place for them. In conclusion, we can see clearly how Hardy attitude and response to the death of Emma changed over time through his poems. At first he is grieving and mourning her, and wishes he could bring her back; he thinks it is his fault that she has died and regrets that their relationship was not as happy as it had been and he wishes he had had a chance to say goodbye to her. However, he stops being so overcome by guilt and regret and focuses more on his memories of himself and Emma in happier times such as on Beeny Cliff. The main devices Hardy repeatedly uses are writing the poems sometimes not using himself as the first person and euphemism in place of saying what has actually happened, especially when referring to Emmas death.

Design of Condition Monitoring (CM) system of a Case Study

Design of Condition Monitoring (CM) system of a Case Study Term / Abbreviation Definition CBW Continuous Batch Washer CM Condition Monitoring DIN Deutsches Institut fur Normung (German Institute for Standardization) FFT Fast Fourier Transform FTIR Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy IR Infra-Red OEM Original Equipment Manufacturer P-F Potential to Functional Failure PM Preventive Maintenance SGS Spring Grove Services TAN Total Acid Number TBN Total Base Number TWF Time Wave Form WDA Wear Debris Analysis Spring Grove Services has decided to embark on a Condition Monitoring approach for the maintenance of its most critical equipment. Criticality was established by carrying out a study on the main Utilities and Process systems/machinery. This report includes data and images from a Thermography study, carried out at SGS, as this type of CM has already commenced. The findings identified in this exercise have highlighted potential points of failure in the Novopac shrink-wrap lines. Lubrication and Vibration Analysis studies have yet to commence so will be considered from a look-ahead perspective. The areas of focus here are the 18 Stage CBW and the Kaeser air compressor respectively. There will be predictions and estimates made on possible findings and required follow-up actions. The report undertaken here confirms to the author the necessity of introducing CM for equipment that is central to the successful running of the SGS plant in Cork. Spring Grove Services is one of Irelands leading laundry rental service providers. SGS has four major processing sites in Ireland. The business model functions by supplying linen to customers on a rental basis. This is then collected after use and cleaned before re-supply. Clients are supplied from a pool stock i.e. linen is not specific to any one client. The plant in Cork, which is featured in our case study, processes on average 330,000kgs of linen per week which equates to approximately 660,000 individual pieces. Run hours are 85 per week. Its customers include Irelands biggest hotels and hospitals. There is a real time aspect to this industry in the sense that linen processed today may well be used in a hotel or hospital tonight. This same linen will probably have only arrived in the laundry this morning in a soiled state. Lengthy batch release times due to quality inspections do not feature as they would in the pharmaceutical and healthcare products industries. This does not mean that there are poor quality standards, it just means that there is a minimum of time to ascertain them. This super-lean model requires maximum availability of plant equipment so effective maintenance is paramount. The operating context is also a factor in the maintenance strategy: equipment with many moving parts operating in a hot, humid and/or dusty environment. Preventive and Corrective Maintenance has historically been accepted practice with SGS but Condition Monitoring is coming more to the forefront for the most critical equipment. SGS is part of the European wide Berendsen group. The first step in the Condition Monitoring journey was to identify the most critical equipment. This would naturally become the focus of CM. Appendices A and B illustrate how Utilities and Process systems interact at SGS. Appendix C explains in detail, using a Criticality Scoring Scheme (Wheelhouse, 2014), how the results in Figure 1 were attained. Figure 1: SGS Criticality Curve Figure 1 trends criticality for the various Utilities and Process systems/equipment in Spring Grove Services. From Figure 1, we can deduce that the most critical assets are the CBWs, the Plastic Wrappers and the air Compressor. On further analysing the failure modes associated with this equipment, we can decide on where the exact focus of CM will be: 18 Stage CBW: This machine is the work horse of the Wash House as it alone processes 50% of the linen. Its most critical piece of equipment is the drive motor/gearbox assembly. We will apply Lubrication Analysis to the gearbox. Plastic Wrappers: These pieces of equipment form the final stage of the laundering process. Failure here creates a severe bottleneck. We will apply Thermographic Analysis to the electrical control panels. Air Compressor: If the compressor stops, production stops as there is no redundancy available. We will apply Vibration Analysis to the bearings as they are overdue replacement according to Original Equipment Manufacturer specification. 3.1 Equipment Description Figure 2: Lenze GST Geared Motor (Source: Geared Motor Spares) Figure 2 shows the type of geared motor used to drive the 18 Stage CBW (Geared Motor Spares). Lenze GST Helical Gearbox Power: 18.5kW Speed: 331rpm Torque: 518Nm Ratio: 4.457:1 Product Code: GST09-2MVBR180C12 Oil manufacture/type: Shell Omala S4 GX 320 Quantity of oil: 4.8 litres 3.2 Testing Overview The main purpose of carrying out lubrication analysis on this gearbox is to determine its health. The health of the lubricating oil itself is of secondary importance to SGS as it is a relatively inexpensive and easy task to replace. Because of these considerations our findings on Wear Debris Analysis (particle count) and Content Analysis will be used to make an overall estimation of system health. Where possible analysis performed through In-line or On-line methods is often preferable. However in this instance, neither of these options is possible so Off-line sampling will have to suffice. Off-line analysis does however provide increased scope for evaluating a greater variety of debris (Pruftechnik, 2002). Figure 3: GST gearbox lubrication service points (Source: Geared Motor Spares)    Figure 3 illustrates the various lubrication service points on a Lenze GST type gearbox (Geared Motor Spares). To take an oil sample, we will employ the following procedure: Ensure that the gearbox/oil is at normal operating temperature. It is not safe to take a sample while the gearbox is in operation due to the proximity of hazardous moving parts. We will therefore instead stop the machine and take a sample as soon as the drive motor is safely isolated. 100ml will be extracted using a Vampire Pump and entering the gearbox through the Breathing/oil filler plug as displayed in Figure 3. This method of extraction is known as the Drop Tube Sampling Method. Figure 4: Drop Tube Sampling Method (Source: Zidoune) Figure 4 shows a Vampire Pump extracting oil using the Drop Tube Sampling Method (Zidoune). Precautions when sampling: Record time, date and operating conditions. Oil must be at operating temperature. Ensure clean bottles and new tubing are used. Take oil from middle of gearbox i.e. not too close to the bottom. A turbulent zone is best. Samples should be sent for laboratory testing without delay. Poor sampling = poor results = poor decisions (Zidoune, 2013). 3.3 Test Findings Visual Inspection This can be performed by onsite staff prior to laboratory analysis and observations will be aimed at the following: Foaming an indication of contamination, passage through restricted openings or excessive churning. Emulsion water has entered the gearbox. Darkening oxidation has occurred or oil has been exposed to excessive heat. Laboratory Analysis On receiving laboratory results, we will consider the following factors in estimating the health of the gearbox: FTIR This provides information about oil chemistry and particulates. It can also determine if there has been a decrease in desirable content such as corrosion inhibitors. Viscosity This can tell us much about the lubricants condition. It can also give us an insight into system health when considered alongside factors such as detergency and dilution. Metal Concentration This is a key health indicator. The presence of certain metals can point towards the defect location e.g. Lead and Tin detected in large amounts indicates wear of a white metal bearing. TAN/TBN Acid number determines amount of oxidation present in the oil. Base number is an indication of the capacity to neutralise acids. Fault Level Settings Gearbox or oil manufacturers should be consulted, however setting useful alarm limits can be subjective as there are many variables in the operating context that it is not possible to account for in their specifications. Alarm limits are best set by initially estimating, based on specifications, and then gathering data over a period of time to tune the initial estimates. This will help reduce both false triggers and potential failures. As there are three CBWs in the wash house with identical drive systems, there is a likelihood that a gearbox will be fully overhauled in the not too distant future. We could use this opportunity to get data from perfectly healthy system i.e. a reconditioned gearbox with new oil. ISO Coding Sample Standard Cleanliness Target for an Industrial Gearbox: ISO 17/15/12 (Angeles, 2003) Table 2 Table 2 contains hypotethical data that we would expect to see in an oil sample taken from a healty gearbox. Using ISO 4406 methods with this data would give us a code of 17/15/12. 3.4 Conclusion Trending It is imperative that a trend is developed from the successive analysis exercises. This will result in a graph curve which displays system health and allow for a timely maintenance intervention when required. Recommended sampling frequency Care must be taken here as 100ml test amounts will render the gearbox empty of oil after 48 samples. Topping up the gearbox after each sample is not recommended as introducing new oil dilutes the existing content and thus distorts WDA data. Current oil replacement interval is every 4 years. Initial sampling frequency will be every 6 months with the gearbox oil level topped up every 12 months. Quick wins Spurlock (n.d.) states that one of the most common points of ingress for contamination in a gearbox is the OEM breather. It is recommended that an aftermarket breather be used instead. 4.1 Equipment Description Figure 5: Novopac ANL 090 Wrapper (Source: Bidspotter) Figure 6: Novopac BM2009 Heat Shrinking Oven (Source: Bidspotter) Figures 5 and 6 show examples of the Novopac Wrapper and Heat Shrinking Oven used in SGS (Bidspotter). Novopac ANL 090 Wrapper and BM2009 Heat Shrinking Oven (both function as a combined unit). Power: 41kW. Output per min.: 8/16 packs. 4.2 Testing Overview It was decided that SGS would purchase a thermographic camera and have one of the maintenance technicians trained in its operation. The supervisor consulted with the technician immediately after the study was completed and again when the full report was completed. 4.3 Test Findings There were two areas that were cause for concern: the three phase power supply connection and the DIN rail mounted contactors. Three Phase Power Supply Connection Figure 7: IR image Figure 8: Standard image Table 3 Figures 7 and 8 show both an IR and a standard image of the three phase connection block. Table 3 lists the data recorded by the camera in this instance. Action taken: The hot spot found in Figure 7 was found to be a loose connection on the DIN rail connection block. Tightening the same connector resolved the issue. DIN Rail Mounted Contactors Figure 9: IR image Figure 10: Standard image Table 4 Figures 9 and 10 show both an IR and a standard image of the DIN rail mounted contactors. Table 4 lists the data recorded by the camera in this instance. Action taken: Figure 9 indicates that there is a temperature build up between the contactors. On consulting previous reports, it was found that the temperature readings were similar during the last thermographic study. At this point the contactors were actually located closer together. A recommendation was made at that time to space out the contactors to allow for extra cooling. However this has made no difference but since there has not been deterioration in the state of the contactors, SGS has decided not to take any further action at present. 4.4 Conclusion The overall conclusion is that, beyond the tightening of the loose connection, there is no serious action required regarding repairs. However SGS has realised that there are shortcomings in the testing procedures which are mainly down to the technician not being trained to the proper standard. Listed below are the observations and recommendations relating to this viewpoint: The approach being applied is a Qualitative one which is sufficient for identifying the presence of a fault. It is also effective as a comparative technique. A Qualitative approach measures the Blackbody Apparent Temperature. Neither reflected/transmitted radiation nor emissivity has been accounted for. To get a true temperature reading, a Quantitative approach would be required. This will not only identify the presence of a fault but also its severity. Reflected/transmitted radiation is accounted for by entering the ambient temperature in the IR Camera. This can be done using pre-measured or estimated values. A correct entry here would provide the Blackbody temperature. Emissivity can be accounted for by entering a pre-measured or library values. A correct entry here, combined with accounting for the reflected/transmitted radiation, would provide the actual temperature. 5.1 Equipment Description Figure 11: Kaeser CS76 (Source: Synairgies) Figure 11 shows the type of Kaeser air compressor used in SGS (Synairgies). Kaeser CS76. Type: Rotary screw wet. Power: 45kW. Motor speed: 3000rpm. Mains frequency: 50Hz. Pressure: 7.5bar. Year of manufacture: 2004. Total running hours: 53563. On-load running hours: 42789. Recommended frequency for bearings replacement: 35000 hours this activity has yet to be completed. 5.2 Testing Overview The most likely cause of a screw compressor to fail is its bearings (KCF Technologies, n.d.). Accelerometer Locations For our Kaeser machine, we will apply vibration monitoring at the radial bearing positions of both the motor and compressor. This area will get a particular focus because OEM specifications suggest the bearings should have already been replaced. SGS is hoping that vibration analysis will give a true indicator of bearing condition and thus inform of the optimum time for bearing change-out. Figure 12: Sensor locations (Source: KCF Technologies) Figure 12 shows typical mounting positions, in yellow, for sensors to measure vibration at motor and compressor radial bearings (KCF Technologies). Mounting technique Accelerometers will be stud mounted to help ensure the most accurate readings. Accelerometer selection and equipment set-up Frequencies associated with bearings usually occur in the 1 to 5 kHz range. For this application an accelerometer with 25 kHz natural frequency is required. Sampling frequency (fs) = 2.56 x 5000 = 12800 Hz. For Fast Fourier Transform Spectrum Analysis, to achieve a frequency resolution of less than 1Hz: df = fs/N à ¢Ã¢â‚¬ °Ã‚ ¤ 1 N is the number of data points. N = 2^14 = 16,384 fs/N = 0.78125 Crest Factor or Kurtosis on Time Wave Form Acceleration signal can be employed to assist with diagnosis. Velocity and Acceleration will be the main focus for FFT. 5.3 Test Findings TWF and FFT For fault diagnosis, we will refer to TWF and FFT graphs. Figure 13: TWF and FFT (Source: Sinha) Figure 13 displays vibration acceleration measurement for a ball bearing in the initial fault stage (Sinha). Vibration Alarm and Fault level examples Table 5 (Source: Zargar) Table 5 lists vibration limits for a similar size and specification to the Kaeser CS76 (Zargar). 5.4 Conclusion A successful vibration monitoring program can be most difficult to attain for screw compressors. This is because of the high frequencies associated with the bearings, gearbox, male and female rotors. The associated noise pollution of the compressor can cause additional monitoring problems (Zargar, 2013). For the Kaeser compressor, there is a risk that bearing wear is present because of the hours run by the machine. However we cannot draw a firm conclusion on this until we develop a trend based on several sets of analysis data. The ultimate goal is to capture the point at which the bearings begin to deteriorate and from there successfully monitor the P-F interval. This will enable a well-judged maintenance intervention. CM want to have: If sufficient finance was available, a great option would be to invest in an Online monitoring system and have data fed back to a central PC. The software package could then issue periodic reports as well as alarm condition notifications. It is clear, I believe, from this report that embarking on a Conditioning Monitoring programme would bring great benefit to SGS. As well as the immediate gains to be made on the above equipment, the following should also result as pleasant side effects: An awareness will have developed among the key stakeholders of the advantages of CM over other types of maintenance. Technical staff will have an opportunity to upskill in either carrying out CM activities such as the Thermography study or be involved in interpreting results from Lubrication and Vibration analysis. There will be a willingness to roll out CM to other pieces of equipment. Thermography is an obvious contender as the equipment is already purchased. Downtime in the Wash House should be reduced as potential failures in the 18 Stage CBW drive gearbox will be identified before descending into functional failures. Again, as soon as this benefit is realised, this approach should carry across to other equipment. The criticality study which underpins the CM strategy will help focus technical resources on the most important equipment to the business. The expected success of the programme in the Cork plant should result in adoption of CM across the other sites in Ireland as there has always been close cooperation in terms of maintenance practices and parts sourcing. There will be an opportunity for the maintenance department to come to the forefront of the company when reporting the expected good news stories to emerge from adopting this new maintenance approach. Continuous improvement will organically develop from CM and bring kudos to the maintenance team. The general non-contact nature of CM will enhance safe working practices. The non-intrusive nature of CM will result in less equipment stoppages and reduced maintenance induced failures. The maintenance team will be encouraged to work more closely with equipment and components suppliers. This will help better inform future selection of machinery. It should be the beginning of a new maintenance culture across the organisation. Angeles, R. (2003). Tables on Oil Analysis. [Online]. Available from http://www.rsareliability.com/Oil%20Analysis%20Tables.pdf [Accessed 12 November 2016]. Bidspotter (n.d.). Impianti Novo Pac heat shrink-wrap tunnel.[Online]. Available from https://www.bidspotter.co.uk/en-gb/auction-catalogues/es-group/catalogue-id-ed10487/lot-85e81420-d4ca-4279-8ccd-a64400d6ecc2 [Accessed 08 November 2016]. Geared Motor Spares (n.d.). Lenze GST Geared Motors.[Online]. Available from http://www.gearedmotorspares-lenzegst.co.uk/lenze-gst-gearbox-products/lenze-185kw/lenze-185kw-277rpm/lenze-gst-geared-motor-185kw-277rpm-619nm-c-16/ [Accessed 08 November 2016]. Geared Motor Spares (n.d.). L-force Geared Motors.[Online]. Available from http://www.gearedmotorspares-lenzegst.co.uk/media/1001/gst-gfl-gks-gkl-gkr-gss-operating-instructions.pdf [Accessed 11 November 2016]. KCF Technologies (n.d.). Vibration Monitoring of Compressors. [Online]. Available from https://kcftech.com/smartdiagnostics/resources/application%20briefs/Application%20White%20Paper%20Compressors%20web.pdf [Accessed 16 November 2016]. Pruftechnik (2002). An Engineers Guide to Shaft Alignment, Vibration Analysis, Dynamic Balancing Wear Debris Analysis. [Online]. Available from http://www.pruftechnik.com/fileadmin/pt/Downloads/Brochures-Flyers_SPECIAL/Engineers_Guide_ALI_CM/EngineersGuide2012.pdf [Accessed 13 November 2016]. Sinha, J. (2016). PG Course in Reliability Engineering and Asset Management, Unit M04: Condition Monitoring. School of Mechanical Aerospace and Civil Engineering. University of Manchester. Spurlock, M. (n.d.). Reducing Gearbox Oil Contamination Levels. [Online]. Available from http://www.machinerylubrication.com/Read/28393/gearbox-oil-contamination [Accessed 11 November 2016]. Synairgies (n.d.).Synairgies Compresseurs Doccasion.[Online]. Available from http://www.synairgies.com/pl/Air/Spr%C4%99%C5%BCarki-%C5%9Brubowe-smarowane/Kaeser/Kaeser-CS-CSD-CSDX/Kaeser-CS76-45kW-Ref12115.html [Accessed 08 November 2016]. Zargar, O. A. (2013). Hydraulic Unbalance in Oil Injected Twin Rotary Screw Compressor Vibration Analysis. [Online]. Available from http://waset.org/publications/9997612/hydraulic-unbalance-in-oil-injected-twin-rotary-screw-compressor-vibration-analysis-a-case-history-related-to-iran-oil-industries- [Accessed 17 November 2016]. Zidoune, M. (2013). Lubricants Handling and Analysis. [Online]. Available from http://www.slideshare.net/marcpalud/tribologik-lubricant-handling-and-analysis-presentation [Accessed 11 November 2016]. Wheelhouse, P. (2014). Exercise 3_5 Criticality, Unit M01: Asset Management Maintenance Strategy. School of Mechanical Aerospace and Civil Engineering. University of Manchester. 8.1 Appendix A Figure 14: SGS Utilities Systems Figure 14 shows the systems which form Utilities at SGS. 8.2 Appendix B Figure 15: SGS Process System/Equipment Figure 15 shows a high level view of process systems and equipment at SGS. 8.3 Appendix C Criticality Scoring Scheme(Wheelhouse, 2014) The plant has decided on a criticality scoring scheme which consists of four different factors which will be multiplied together to give an overall score for equipment criticality. These factors are: Redundancy, Failure Likelihood, Failure Duration Financial Impact. A scoring scheme has been devised for each factor as follows: Redundancy = Number of units required / Number of units available Likelihood KeywordEvents per YearScore Never00 Very unlikely Unlikely 0.2 0.6 2 Probable 1.0 1.5 3 Almost certain >24 Duration KeywordScore Hours1 Days2 Weeks3 Months4 Financial Impact KeywordScore Repair cost only1 Additional cost penalty2 Potential loss of sales3 Immediate loss of sales4 Table 6 lists equipment criticalities as calculated at SGS. References Angeles, R. (2003). Tables on Oil Analysis. [Online]. Available from http://www.rsareliability.com/Oil%20Analysis%20Tables.pdf [Accessed 12 November 2016]. British Standards Institution (1999). BS ISO4406:1999. Hydraulic fluid power Fluids Method for coding the level of contamination by solid particles. Published under the authority of the Standards Committee. Felten, D. (2003). Understanding Bearing Vibration Frequencies. [Online]. Available from http://electromotores.com/PDF/InfoT%C3%A9cnica/EASA/Understanding%20Bearing%20Vibration%20Frequencies.pdf [Accessed 16 November 2016]. Geared Motor Spares (n.d.). L-force Geared Motors.[Online]. Available from http://www.gearedmotorspares-lenzegst.co

Tuesday, August 20, 2019

Essay --

Introduction Animal Farm, written by George Orwell, is a fictional story based on realistic events in history. The main topic presented in the book is the animals wanted to avoid being exploited by their current oppressor; however, their own allies exploited the other animals. The author used animal actions to mirror events that happen in the Russian Revolution. The author’s purpose is to inform his audience to be mindful of government decision, to know those decisions and learn the events in history because history has the tendency to repeat itself. Explain the Relationship: Orwell’s experience in World War Two caused him to produce Animal Farm. While working as a volunteer soldier, he developed hate for fascism and Stalinism. His assertions originated from observing the corrupt government of the Russian Revolution and reading literature. Although the author’s novel has entertained many students, his goal was to inform readers of satire of the Soviet Communism. The author’s studies relate to Dr. Stovall’s social science class, because this novel contains sociology between people and demonstrates human nature inside of the text. The elements of the novel expressed the author’s observations of a corrupt government. The first element is its genre, fiction. The author used fictional animals to depict the humans of the Russian Revolution. These animals’ actions developed themes. When the animals overthrew the farmer, the pigs rose to power and became a corrupt government. This signified the theme that the Soviet’s government ideas were corrupt. Another theme arose when Snowball and Napoleon struggled for superiority. This event was a theme similar to the human story where Stalin, who is represented by Napoleon, vanquishes... ...d power and violated the commandments. The animals were unable to realize they were oppressed like in the past, because they did not learn about the past. The book also implies the readers should become knowledgeable so that they would not become oppressed. My stance about the book is it is a must read for students and people who are a part of the working class. This situation can happen to many people in my generation because students fail to read. Like the farm animals, who could not read, they accept almost anything someone tells them because they do not know their history and rights. While reading the novel, I developed my likes and dislikes. I liked the event, when the animals first had the idea to rebel against the farmer. However, I disliked Boxer’s death the most as well as the farm animals working hard while the pigs reaped the benefits. Essay -- Introduction Animal Farm, written by George Orwell, is a fictional story based on realistic events in history. The main topic presented in the book is the animals wanted to avoid being exploited by their current oppressor; however, their own allies exploited the other animals. The author used animal actions to mirror events that happen in the Russian Revolution. The author’s purpose is to inform his audience to be mindful of government decision, to know those decisions and learn the events in history because history has the tendency to repeat itself. Explain the Relationship: Orwell’s experience in World War Two caused him to produce Animal Farm. While working as a volunteer soldier, he developed hate for fascism and Stalinism. His assertions originated from observing the corrupt government of the Russian Revolution and reading literature. Although the author’s novel has entertained many students, his goal was to inform readers of satire of the Soviet Communism. The author’s studies relate to Dr. Stovall’s social science class, because this novel contains sociology between people and demonstrates human nature inside of the text. The elements of the novel expressed the author’s observations of a corrupt government. The first element is its genre, fiction. The author used fictional animals to depict the humans of the Russian Revolution. These animals’ actions developed themes. When the animals overthrew the farmer, the pigs rose to power and became a corrupt government. This signified the theme that the Soviet’s government ideas were corrupt. Another theme arose when Snowball and Napoleon struggled for superiority. This event was a theme similar to the human story where Stalin, who is represented by Napoleon, vanquishes... ...d power and violated the commandments. The animals were unable to realize they were oppressed like in the past, because they did not learn about the past. The book also implies the readers should become knowledgeable so that they would not become oppressed. My stance about the book is it is a must read for students and people who are a part of the working class. This situation can happen to many people in my generation because students fail to read. Like the farm animals, who could not read, they accept almost anything someone tells them because they do not know their history and rights. While reading the novel, I developed my likes and dislikes. I liked the event, when the animals first had the idea to rebel against the farmer. However, I disliked Boxer’s death the most as well as the farm animals working hard while the pigs reaped the benefits.