Monday, September 30, 2019
When I was immature, I ne'er had a dream to go a instructor. My instruction besides was non in the instruction field. I had ne'er been learning anyplace before I worked at my university. Therefore, instruction is a new thing for me. When I began to learn, I realized that it was non easy to go a good instructor. It was a large duty. What you teach today could impact person Ã¢â¬Ës hereafter. Therefore, as a instructor, I need counsel as my foundation to go a good pedagogue. I believe it is of import that personal beliefs about instruction be explored. This should be an on-going and germinating procedure, because constructing up a personal doctrine of instruction has been a journey of hunt and find. It will turn over the clip based on experiences, and besides on personal and educational developments. The challenges that I will run into during the journey excite new demands to go a better pedagogue. As a instructor, it is my desire to link with my pupils. I believe that instructors should give the pupils attending and affect them in learning and larning procedure. This essay is about my doctrine of instruction. It will be organized as follows: first, I will offer my point of position about the purposes of instruction. Second, I will exemplify my beliefs about instruction and larning methods. Third, I will show my positions about curriculum execution. I will so depict my moralss and morality in instruction and acquisition procedure. I will shut by reasonin g my doctrine of instruction that I mentioned before. My doctrine of instruction starts with what I feel about instruction. For me, the purposes of instruction should include and learn rational, personal, civic, cultural, and moral facets of life. This will guarantee all-around and balanced persons. Education is non merely about developing pupils Ã¢â¬Ë minds but besides developing pupils Ã¢â¬Ë emotional capacities. Education should make people who care for other people. We do non desire create rational but nescient people. Education should besides concentrate on the civic duties of persons beyond the schoolroom. I think pupils should be encouraged to make out in openness and service to the community beyond the school, to go actively involved in their community. Persons should obtain accomplishments through instruction which contribute to autonomy in work outing jobs of mundane life. I feel pupils should develop regard for the usage, civilizations, and beliefs that occur in our diverse universe. Students should develop values that will be good to the common public assistance of society. In add-on, I feel it besides of import for instruction to encompass plans that develop regard for the environment. Students should acknowledge and aware about their environment and how to use sustainable life. I realize that to accomplish those purposes is a challenge. I hope my doctrine of instruction will assist me and pupils to accomplish them. As a instructor in a distance acquisition university, my focal point is on-line learning. It is a bit different from learning in a Ã¢â¬Å" conventional Ã¢â¬ or face to face university. I normally have a big on-line category for my class. Sometime it is hard to pay attending to every pupil separately, but I do believe that pupils need attending to do them prosecute with the class. They need to be recognized as an person. So, my doctrine of instruction is a student-centered 1. I believe in concentrating on single demands, and affecting pupils in the procedure of their acquisition. It is my belief that single differences need to be respected. I believe that all pupils have strengths, and that is the end of instruction to help pupils in identifying and edifice upon these. These beliefs are stronger after I have been analyzing at Simon Fraser University ( SFU ) . I see that pupils can larn more if they are engaged with the lessons and with the instructors. Therefore, the lessons have t o be interesting and instructors have to give their best attending to the pupils. I besides believe Freire Ã¢â¬Ës ( 1970/2000 ) construct about teacher-student with students-teachers. He argued that Ã¢â¬Å" the instructor is no longer simply the-one-who-teaches, but one who is himself or herself taught in duologue with the pupils, who in bend while being taught besides teach. They become jointly responsible for a procedure in which all grow Ã¢â¬ ( p. 50 ) . I think it can be employed in distance acquisition university, where most of the pupils are big scholars, and parts of the teaching-learning procedure are based on tutorials. In this method, instructor and pupils have chances to develop treatments, and from those, we can larn from each other. For me, the most meaningful acquisition takes topographic point when pupils are motivated and interested. It is my belief that the manner to accomplish this is by giving pupils a voice in the acquisition procedure, and by helping them in happening connexions in the course of study with their ain life and involvements. By leting pupils to convey their ain narratives, experiences, and thoughts into the schoolroom, we provide the pupils with chances to work together, to larn from each other, and to esteem each others Ã¢â¬Ë differences. I besides believe that pupils should be given chances to associate their acquisition and critical thought accomplishments to societal challenges and jobs outside of the schoolroom. Not merely do pupils hold the possible to do a difference within the society, they can turn as persons in the procedure. This attack has the benefits of authorising pupils and constructing their ego regard and job resolution accomplishments. Related with course of study, I believe that establishments and instructors still hold the chief function in developing course of study, and instructors can be flexible in the course of study execution. I learned from my experiences in SFU that pupils could be involved in curriculum execution. They are given a opportunity to give their input, so instructors can place their demands. I believe when instructors give the pupils chances like this, it will do them experience challenged to larn and go more interested and satisfied with the acquisition procedure. Analyzing in a distance acquisition university is non easy. Students have to go self directed-learners. They have to be independent. However, sometime they need to inquire and confer with about their survey troubles with instructors. That is why I besides believe that I should be a good facilitator for my pupils. Not merely should I be a good instructor academically, but besides I should be a usher to my pupils. If there are some inquiries and concerns about their survey, I will assist them exhaustively, administratively and academically. My doctrine besides includes respects, kindness, duty, democratic instruction, forbearance, and clip. Even though pupils and teacher hold different functions, I believe that I, as a instructor, have to handle them with regard, because when we respect each other, the learning acquisition procedure will run swimmingly. I besides have duties to give my pupils a good quality of instruction. Students should derive something utile when they study. In add-on, in my experience, because pupils besides need attending, as a instructor I should be patient and give them my clip for listening. My doctrine of instruction has been shaped by experiences within my ain life and my instruction. I feel that attending every bit good as affecting pupils are of import as parts of the instruction and acquisition procedure. As I enter the profession of instruction, my doctrine may germinate as I gain experiences as a instructor. However, the foundations of my educational doctrine will go on to steer me in the manner which I interact with my pupils.
Sunday, September 29, 2019
Hamlet is a revenge tragedy play, which was a very popular theme at the time Shakespeare was writing. Hamlet was written at the time Shakespeare was writing at his very best. Hamlet was written over 400 years ago and has outlived most other revenge plays but still continues to hold great appeal due to the effect it has on all those who see and hear it As Hamlet is self-titled we know Hamlet will die and this event will bring a close to the play. Because we know how the play will end Shakespeare entices the audience by keeping us on the edge about when, where, how and why it will happen. In this essay I have chosen to write about the death of Gertrude, Claudius and Hamlet. All three characters die in the last Act, Act 5. Hamlet is a play set in Denmark. His father at the start of the play has already been brutally murdered by his (HamletÃ¢â¬â¢s) Uncle Claudius. Ã¢â¬â brother to the deceased king. The ghost of his father appears to him and reveals how Claudius so cunningly murdered him, and begs Hamlet to avenge his death. Ghost: Revenge his foul and most unnatural murther Hamlet is already furious with Claudius for marrying his mother within such a short time of his fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s death. Hamlet: Ã¢â¬ ¦ for look how cheerful my mother looks, and my father died withinÃ¢â¬â¢s two hours. This causes him to wonder if his mother had had any part in his fathers murder also. Hamlet within him vows to obey the ghost of his father. While all this is happening Fortinbras of Norway is invading Denmark with the aim of avenging his fathers death that was taken by the late king of Denmark, HamletÃ¢â¬â¢s father. Hamlet decides to have the players play a play similar to the death of his father to see the reaction of Claudius. Hamlet: IÃ¢â¬â¢ll have these Players, Play something like the murder of my father, Before mine uncle. IÃ¢â¬â¢ll observe his looks,Ã¢â¬ ¦ He wants to be sure that the ghost was not evil and telling the truth. The play is a success and Hamlet can now be sure that Claudius is responsible for the death of his father. Gertrude, HamletÃ¢â¬â¢s mother along with everyone else are outraged by HamletÃ¢â¬â¢s change in character. Polonius, Lord Chamberlain, a good friend to the king believes Hamlet is mad as a result of his daughter Ophelia rejecting HamletÃ¢â¬â¢s love as he had ordered her too. Gertrude asks for her son to visit her in her bedroom. Here Hamlet mistakenly stabs Polonius who is hiding behind the curtains when he heard HamletÃ¢â¬â¢s footsteps approaching after having been talking to the queen. Queen: O what a rash and bloody deed this this! PoloniusÃ¢â¬â¢ children now change in character. Ophelia turns mad and drowns herself, while Laertes returns from studying in France and is also driven to avenge his fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s death. HamletÃ¢â¬â¢s madness causes Claudius to send Hamlet to England. However, Hamlet who seems always to be one step ahead of the king knows Claudius has sent a letter requesting Hamlets death and switches the note with his own for Rosencrantz and Guildenstern, once friends of HamletÃ¢â¬â¢s, before they decided to betray him by becoming ClaudiusÃ¢â¬â¢ informants and so they are killed. Hamlet: Why do you think I am easier to be played on, than a pipe? Later Hamlet returns to Denmark, to much surprise of the king to see OpheliaÃ¢â¬â¢s burial. Throughout the play the audience are kept in suspense about as to when Hamlet will strike Claudius. Hamlet can be seen as a hero or villain. Shakespeare makes the audience see Hamlet as a hero. Through HamletÃ¢â¬â¢s soliloquies the audience feel as though they come to know Hamlet. In this they experience what he is going through and feel his hurt and pain, which is not enough to justify his killing on Claudius but to understand why he feels he must. Act 5 begins with the burial of Ophelia and shows the first confrontation between Laertes and Hamlet. Here Shakespeare allows the audience to acknowledge that both Laertes and Hamlet are suffering in the same way; although Laertes has lost both a father and sister, as OpheliaÃ¢â¬â¢s death was a result of her fathers. However, Shakespeare causes the audience to excuse HamletÃ¢â¬â¢s wrong deed and side with him. Scene two from this Act is the last in the play. Claudius falsely welcomes Hamlet home. However, Claudius and Laertes see Hamlets return as a suggestion to all their troubles, to kill Hamlet once and for all. They cunningly plan a duel between Laertes the best fighter and Hamlet. What they do not know is that Hamlet has been practicing during his time in England. Hamlet: Ã¢â¬ ¦ since I went into France, I have been in continual practice; The fact that this is secretly revealed by Hamlet to Horatio, Hamlets good friend, reveals also a secret to the audience. At this point the audience cannot be sure if Hamlet will die, as the title suggests. The audience are at this point plagued with the fact that Laertes, Claudius and Fortinbras are all awaiting the day that Hamlet will die. During the wager Hamlet is the first to make a hit. Laertes and Hamlet soon scuffle and wound each other. However, Laertes sword has poison on so that when he hits Hamlet he will die. This was the plan of the king and Laertes. The king who also put a poison pearl into the win glass Ã¢â¬ËIf Hamlet give the first, or second hit,.. Ã¢â¬Ë is horrified when Gertrude drinks from the cup in honour of Hamlet giving the first hit. Gertrude soon dies. Queen: The drink, the drink, I am poisonÃ¢â¬â¢d. The fact that we never truly knew until this point that Gertrude was an innocent party in her husbandÃ¢â¬â¢s murder causes us to feel pity for her. We also pity her as Claudius tried to have her son executed and pretended to love her in order to keep the thrown. The audience can now see that Gertrude was tricked from the beginning by Claudius, as well as he taking her husbands life he has also taking her own. This shoes that Claudius was only looking after himself. We pity her because Claudius could never have loved her especially not as her husband did as he was the cause of her death. The way in which she was killed causes the audience to experience horror because we did not expect Gertrude to drink the wine. Also because it was her husband that allows her to die. Although he tries to stop her he does not try hard enough. King: Gertrude, do not drink. It horrifies us that Claudius was so eager to get rid of Hamlet that he even had two plans and so we fear what will happen next. Claudius is already aware that it will only be a matter of time before Hamlet will die as before Laertes did he had cut Hamlet. We also fear what Claudius has become and if he will stop at anything. Hamlet has now lost a mother and a father at the hands of Claudius. The audience are now fearful of the amount of hatred Hamlet must have for Claudius and fear how he will react. The sudden death of HamletÃ¢â¬â¢s father and Gertrude leaves the audience disturbed as both had no time to repent their sins and we fear if Gertrude will become Ã¢â¬ËDoomÃ¢â¬â¢d for a certain term to walk the night:Ã¢â¬ ¦ Ã¢â¬Ë The plot of Hamlet thickens more and the audience at this point are left to wonder if Claudius will get away with his terrible deeds. However, during the scuffe hamlet picked up Laertes sword when it the scuffle it had been knocked forom his hand and Hamlet had wounded Laertes At this moment Laertes Ã¢â¬Ëexchange forgivenessÃ¢â¬â¢ with Hamlet and his last few words ensure that the king, Ã¢â¬ËHe is justly serveÃ¢â¬â¢dÃ¢â¬â¢. Laertes: Ã¢â¬ ¦ the King, the KingÃ¢â¬â¢s to blame. When Hamlet is sure that it was Ã¢â¬ËTreasonÃ¢â¬â¢ he stabs the king and he is only then Ã¢â¬Ëjustly killÃ¢â¬â¢d with mine own treacheryÃ¢â¬â¢. The king is now dead. At this point it is hard to pity Claudius because he has been the cause of so many lives being taken away. In spite of this we pity him because he is human and he did attempt to stop Gertrude which he did not have to do. We can also pity him because Hamlet and his parents had a good family and wealth and friends all of which Claudius did not. The audience have been forced from the start of the play to believe that there is an after life and world, heaven and hell. We therefore pity what will become of Claudius because he has been so bad. Ghost: My hour is almost come, When sulphurous and tormenting flamesÃ¢â¬ ¦ This shows that the ghost of HamletÃ¢â¬â¢s father is going to hell, so we pity Claudius as we assume he will be here also. On the other hand we cannot forget what Claudius has done and are horrified by his actions. The numerous ways he has tried to kill Hamlet on several occasions and stopping at nothing, no matter who he hurt in order to achieve his aim. We are again horrified by Claudius allowing his wife Gertrude to die. At this point it looks as though everyone with a path to the throne is dead. We now fear for the people of Denmark about who will save them from Fortinbras. Hamlet who was stabbed by Laertes with the poisonous sword is now feeling the effect of the poison and can feel it taking over him. Hamlet departs this life. Hamlet: Ã¢â¬ ¦ I am dead,Ã¢â¬ ¦ Shakespeare causes the audience to pity Hamlet because he has lost both his mother and father and lover. Claudius had been attempting to kill Hamlet for ages and because he kept failing the audience feel as though hamlet has outwitted Claudius until now and so maybe he would live. The audience have become attached to Hamlet and it hurts them to see him die. We pity Hamlet because he may also go to hell when he was only trying to get even with Claudius the way he thought was right. The audience also pity Hamlet as if Claudius had let his father be, then the ghost would not have told him the truth and he would still be alive. Nevertheless, we fear for Hamlet in the next life, and are horrified that Hamlet dies and Fortinbras is left to take the throne without opposition. Hamlet is very much a revenge tragedy. The first murder of his father led to a string of killings after it. In stating this it shows that certain deaths had to come first in order for others to occur. I think ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s Hamlet has been such a success due to the truthful implications it deals with. Revenge is thought to be wrong, immoral, but in Hamlet Shakespeare expresses revenge as the natural human impulse that lies within us all. Hamlet is only acting out of the love he has for his father, which is undoubtedly the reaction each and every one of us would take. Although revenge was a popular theme during the time Hamlet was acted, Shakespeare takes it that great leap further which no author had began or even thought about doing. Instead of hating the avenger and wanting him to die we appreciate his aim and hence feel sorry for him at his death. Shakespeare forces us to perceive Hamlet for the person he is and not for the vile act he commits. The concept of Claudius having destroyed his family as well as his life remains at the forefront of our minds whilst watching the play and causes us to feel immense pity towards Hamlet and we the audience can therefore not loathe him. What makes Hamlet all the more fascinating is that we are kept in suspense as to if Gertrude had a part in the murder of her Husband. Throughout the play Shakespeare causes the audience to experience horror, pity and fear by making the next stage in the play all the more unpredictable. Just when we think we know what will happen due to what has been revealed to us through conversation and especially soliloquies does Shakespeare prove us wrong by adding an unexpected twist. I think Hamlet has also been such a success because it shows how life in this world is so short and puts fear into us about life in the next. It also shows how one incident can affect so many lives so much. The fact that Hamlet is betrayal within a family causes the audience to feel that little bit more afraid. When the tight unity between families is broken then respect for anyone can hardly be possible, as the ability to trust and love another must be hard. Even so Hamlet did and still does love Ophelia. Hamlet: I lovÃ¢â¬â¢d Ophelia; forty thousand brothers Could not (with all their quantities of love) Make up my sum. What wilt thou do for her? Shakespeare causes even more pity towards Hamlet, as through this quote it is inevitable that LaertesÃ¢â¬â¢ loss was also a loss of HamletÃ¢â¬â¢s.
Saturday, September 28, 2019
Project Management Crosby Manufacturing Corporation - Case Study Example The president of Management Cost and Control System (MCCS) had a meeting with department managers to solve the issue of MCCS reporting procedures. The government had just renewed the interest in the company, and therefore, there was a need to computerize the finance reporting methods, so as to compete fairly with other companies. Having taken over the leadership in 2005, Livingstone took a major stride in reorganizing the structure of the company leadership, this really worked well and they could now get large number of government contracts. The second strategy was to update the MCCS reporting procedure to ensure a sizable cash outlay to increase the business. The president then appointed Emary to be the planning project leader, even though he was not conversant with computers. LivingstonÃ¢â¬â¢s Appointment The president of the company while appointing Tim Emary to head the project stated that he was doing so because of the importance of the project, and while acknowledging that Emary had little knowledge of computers, the president reiterated the fact that Emary knew how to make schedules and do the work well. With due respect for the president, being a leader who had seen the flourishing of MCCS since his appointment, his confidence in Emary boosted by his experience in leadership shows that he was right to pick Emary as the leader of the planning team; he was highly conversant with his staff and the capability of each one of them. He too wanted to achieve, and unlike in the previous year, he had now realized the mistake they had done. As indicated by the president, the leader to be was not computer literate, but other project team members were. Since the project was to be well scheduled and well planned, it was very necessary to have a mix of experience in the team, just as the presi dent had done. Emary was going to help much in planning and scheduling, while the rest were going to assist in computer skills and application. Project planning is a highly demanding and exhausting process; Ã¢â¬Å"the scheduler has to keep many activities, resources, calendars, logical relationships and constraints correctly, completely and currently stated in the scheduleÃ¢â¬ (Hullet, 2009, p. 3). Emary in this case is assigned to collect information from the rest of the team and to combine them into a better project logic. Another major role to be played by Emary as a scheduler is to act as a middle man between the project team and the president; this is a typical role of a scheduler. He is also to ensure that the project schedule represents the desired plan and any changes that may be required later. To achieve this, Emary as a project scheduler will ensure that logical relationship and critical paths are well examined. As further argued by Hulett (2009), success in managing a project needs a complete and sensible project schedule;
Friday, September 27, 2019
DISCUSS THE SCIENTIFIC STRENGTHS AND WEAKNESSES OF EVOLUTIONARY PSYCHOLOGY - Essay Example that the study of biology is significantly connected with the study of psychology, a lot of philosophers and psychologists are convinced that combining both could enable them to develop a more scientific explanation behind the study of the human minds. In the process, psychologists and scientists have been supporting the progress of the evolutionary psychology. Despite many people who believes in the purpose of evolutionary psychology, there are also several critiques who questions its scientific validity. and Ã¢â¬Ënatural selection.Ã¢â¬â¢ Dawkins (1986) and Williams (1966) explain that the natural selection allows the evolutionary process to be able to acknowledge a more complex functional organization into the phenotype of the species. In the book written by George William (1966) Adaptation and Natural Selection, he discussed the issue on the importance of Ã¢â¬Ëadaptationist approachÃ¢â¬â¢ in terms of examining the reasons behind the ability of human mind to adapt with its environment. In line with this matter, James (1890) announces that the application of an evolutionary approach could enable us to learn more information from what our own instinct fails to determine. In the process wherein psychologists and philosophers are able to distinguish and realize the fact that: (1) natural competence really exists; and (2) the human brain is one example that is characterized by such a complex competences, we are able to develop a possible theory behind the design of the human mind . Adaptations are important since it could enable the psychologists and philosophers to solve a problem. (Williams, 1966) Dawkins (1986) also gave emphasis that through the principles of adaptation approach, evolutionary biologists and psychologists could be able to find a more concrete ideas and solution to the problems that may arise behind the study of the human mind structure. Prior to the evolutionary psychology, philosophers and scientists strongly agree that the human mind resembles a
Thursday, September 26, 2019
Global perpective of macroecomonics - Essay Example The following diagram shows how the current account balance in the US economy had depended upon the trade balances of the nation over the years. Of all the three components of the current account, viz., trade balance, income balance and the transfer payments, the trend in the current account balances of the economy is significantly related to that of the trade balances. Hence, any deficit in the trade balances will seriously hamper the current account balance values of an economy. Since the current account balance determine the current financial asset position of an economy, a depreciating value will imply a poor status of the same that will affect the amount of financial investments into the nation and thus prospects of potential future growth. The sake of the present as well as the future of an economy is the reason for an appropriate monitoring of the trade balance status of the economy. The US economy at present is suffering from the problem of high trade deficit which must be taken care of urgently. This paper tries to focus on the causes behind the trade position of the nation, the consequences that it has on various aspects of the economy and the steps that the Federal Reserve has implemented in this regard. Trade deficit in USA, as the adjoining table suggest is found to be increasing over the years. It is also obvious from the table that, the imbalance or rather deficit is primarily due to a hike in the import purchases rather than a fall in exports. There had in fact been a significant increase in exports between 2001 and 2006, but the proportion of imports is found to have outgrown that of the exports within the nation. 1) A trade deficit in the US has often been argued by economists to be an outcome of a savings-investment imbalance within the nation. When the country had been going through a fall in aggregate savings compared to the investment potentials of the nation, other economies had been witnessing just the reverse
Wednesday, September 25, 2019
Essay Prpposal and Annotated Bibliography - Research Proposal Example Tom and Maggie, the main characters chose different ways to fight against past (time) but their fight become futile under the flow of time. The Novel begins with the early life of the heroine, Maggie Tulliver and ends with the death of Maggie and her brother Tom, in a flood on the river Floss. The plot of the novel is quite slow moving but it helps to have an accurate measurement of time. The river Floss itself represents time, which is endless and ever flowing. The past haunts Tulliver family with Mr. TulliverÃ¢â¬â¢s death, family crises, bankruptcy, and loss of the Mill etc. Tom is more practical than Maggie. But Maggie wasted her intellectual aptitude in her socially isolated state and she embraced intense spirituality. The death in flood denotes the end of time and the novel. The strong bond of love between brother and sister signifies ever flowing time. The series of events in the life of Tom and Maggie force them to struggle against death, the point of no return. George Eliot points out that: (Ã¢â¬Å"And every man and women mentioned in this history was still livingÃ¢â¬ (Eliot 591) the story of Tulliver family ends with the death of Tom and Maggie but history never ends. The ever flowing river Floss or time is represented as the force that is capable to determine the destiny of Tulliver family. So, the ways that time is measured and marked in the novel helps to connect the present state to past and future. George Eliot use time to measure the development of the story and it leads to the last conflict and doom of Tom and Maggie. The time is marked and measured and this helps the reader to have a clear idea cyclic procedure of time, i.e. nature. Moreover, time unveils the past of Tulliver family and leads the important characters to their destiny. The Journal Article by George Eliot, Theodor Storm and John T. Krumpelmann, namely Ã¢â¬Å"George Eliots The Mill on
Tuesday, September 24, 2019
Post Employment Benefits - Essay Example 2. We have been provided with what would be "amortized" this year (2007) towards Unrecognized Prior Service Costs, but we have not been provided with what is the actual amount pending towards UPSC. 3. We have been told that the employer's contribution would be 3% of payroll. But we do not know as to what are the company's expenses on salaries and wages. 4. We have no information regarding the number of employees involved in the scheme, their retirement dates, etc. All this information can influence the answer. So, where ever required, we have made suitable assumptions relating the above missing information. Answer 1: From the given information, if the company decides to go on with its existing (DBP) post employment benefits plan, from the information available, we can draw up an approximate pension worksheet, as follows: Items General Journal Entries Memo Record Annual Pension Expense Cash (Prepaid) / Accrued Cost Projected Benefit Obligation Plan Assets Unrecognized Prior Service Cost Balance, Dec. 31, 2006 810,000 Cr 340,000Dr (a) Unrecognized Prior Service Cost Balance, Jan. 1, 2007 --- (810,000+) Cr 340,000 Dr (b) Service Cost 88,000 Dr 88,000Cr (c) Interest Cost 81,000 Dr 81,000 Cr (d) Actual Return 34,000 Cr 34,000 Dr (e) Amortization of UPSC 21,000 Dr 21,000 Cr (f) Contributions X Cr X Dr Journal Entry for 2007 156,000 Dr X Cr (156,000 - X) Cr Balance, Dec. 31, 2007 0 (374,000 + X) Dr Note: In the above table, 1. Interest / Discount / Settlement Rate = 10% 2. Opening and closing balance of Unrecognized Prior Service Cost is unknown. (Shown as '') 3. Since the amount contributed by the employer...They do so by letting the company switch over from its existing 'defined benefits plan' to a 'defined contribution plan' to save costs. 3. The employees give up their claim on every other liability, like whatever is pending towards Unrecognized Prior service costs, what ever would be this years service cost, interest burden on what ever is pending towards 'Projected Benefits Obligation', etc. 5. Employer will contribute 3% of the payroll towards the 'retirement fund' or the 'plan assets' hence forth regardless of whatever has been accumulated in the fund, whether it is sufficient, insufficient or in excess. 6. AND hence forth, since the company moves on with a 'defined contribution plan', employer doesn't have any more liability other than payment of his annual contribution towards the fund and what ever post employment benefits are to be derived would be out of the balance in the 'fund' kept aside for that purpose. From the given information, if the company decides to go on with its existing (DBP) post employment benefits plan, from the information available, we can draw up an approximate pension worksheet, as follows: While, if the employer decides to switch over to a 'defined contribution plan' where the employer pays 3% of payroll as his contribution, the agreement being that the employees get to keep what is already in the defined benefit
Monday, September 23, 2019
MIH 521 Health Program Evaluation (Module 1 CBT) - Essay Example Generally, it is thought to be important because it provides timely empirically-driven feedback that can influence policy and decision making (Eddy, 2007). There are many evaluation strategies used. The scientific experimental model is probably the most understood. In this type of evaluation, impartiality, accuracy, objectivity and validity become very important. These are traditionally quasi-experimental and experimental designs but may also include objective based, econometrically-oriented, and recently theory-driven evaluation. There is also what is called management oriented systems models. The ones that we have seen used the most here are the Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT) and the Critical Path Method (CPM). A third class of strategies includes qualitative /anthropological models. The phenomenological quality of the evaluation context and the subjective human interpretation are included here. This includes the grounded theories. Finally there are also the participant-oriented models. This group includes those studies that are client centered and have involvement from stakeholders (Eddy, 2007). There are different methods of evaluating a health program, based on what is being evaluated. There are two that are the most popular and those are formative and summative evaluations. This further breaks down to evaluation types. The formative method includes such things as assessment, evaluability assessment, structured conceptualization, implementation evaluation and process evaluation. The summative method on the other hand includes outcome evaluations, impact evaluations, cost-effective and cost-benefit analysis, and meta-analysis. There are then primary questions that are usually ask when doing an evaluation. If one is using the formative model, they may ask, "What is the definition and scope of the problem or issue, or what's the question" and if it is of the summative style, "What type of evaluation is feasible" Once the question is formulated, there is a planning evaluation cycle that takes place throughout the process. This is shown in figure 1 below. http://www.socialresearchmethods.net/kb/pecycle.php An evaluation culture or the consistent use of evaluation is extremely important. It is important in both the designing and the re-evaluation of all health promotions. If health promotions are not evaluated, it is unknown as to whether or not they are meting the needs of the population that the promotion is for. It is important to know: Is the program reaching the target group Are the participants satisfied with the program Are the activities of the program being implemented as planned Are the materials and components of the activity of good quality It is difficult to know the answers to any of these questions if an evaluation is not done. In conclusion, evaluation research is important in the social and medical welfare of the public. It answers questions in a manner that allows the change of policy and process and pushes forward an implementation cycle. It helps in the understanding of whether there are alternative needs or whether the program is working. In healthcare of today, resources are very limited and those resources that are spent must be assured as being spent appropriately.
Sunday, September 22, 2019
Human Impact on Environmental Degradation and Climate Change - A Sociological Perspective - Research Paper Example l of development and export intensity are correlated with the total carbon dioxide emissions and in the contamination of air, water, and land so in this case, it proves that industrial advancements contribute greatly to environmental degradation. Forests were also converted into export materials for some countries. Aside from deforestation, desertification, and oil spillage and sea erosion are forms of environmental degradation that were created based on functionalismÃ¢â¬â¢s doctrine. The overall culture of present America supports environmental restoration and so some technologies were centered on environmentalism but these things will be useful if people will be aware of their role in preserving the environment as well. Religion is one of the components in shaping the environmental beliefs and practices of people. There are religions that are aware of the environmental destructions like Buddhism. Buddhists believe that there are other living things on this planet and that Ã¢â¬ËMother EarthÃ¢â¬â¢ and all other beings living in it should be respected and cared. According to the principle, the People-as-Problem-Solvers Perspective, societies can institute changes that positively respond to the needs of the environment and that they can also craft solutions to combat the signs of damage existent therein. As proven by the study of Fien et al., young members of the society who have attended school have higher levels of concern toward the environment. Additionally, the researchers advocated for community participation that helps the youth to become more appreciative to the bounty of nature and more sensitive to its limits. From the work of Petkus.
Saturday, September 21, 2019
Well-being of the sadhu Essay 1. Who is responsible for the well-being of the sadhu? What are the duties of the people involved? What action would best serve the good of everyone? No one is really responsible for someone elseÃ¢â¬â¢s well being, it just depends on a personÃ¢â¬â¢s moral thinking. Therefore, there are no duties required from all the people that were involved. If everyone believed that their purpose was to help others, then everyone is responsible for his well-being. In this story, everyone had helped in a little way. For instance, the New Zealanders carried him to where McCoy was, which was then where McCoy checked for pulse and Stephen and the Swiss clothed him. Even though everyone put in a little bit of effort to help him, I believe that if they worked together as a team with their efforts combined, greater outcomes would have resulted. If fingers had to be pointed to someone who is responsible for sadhu, it would have to be the person who found him first, which was one of the New Zealanders. 2. How are the problems here similar to problems that arise in organizations every day? What kinds of sadhus do people confront in everyday life? Organizations face issues like this everyday, where they are met with obstacles that would take them longer to make it to their ultimate goal. For instance, while working on a large project, they notice something wrong. Instead of stopping to figure out how to fix it, they just keep going just for the sake of completing the task on time. Either to put ones effort individually, or make a decision to work as a team to put everyoneÃ¢â¬â¢s efforts in as a whole. Sadhus that people are confronted with everyday life for example is a friend who is in need of help, yet if we do help them we are pushed away further from reaching our goals. Sometimes people are too focused on reaching their goal that they do not see anything else and will not help others. InÃ reality, while helping others, reaching their goals are still achievable, but perhaps will take a bit longer than normal.
Friday, September 20, 2019
Theories of Genes and Cancer The Wind in the Trees In the late 1950s, Peter Nowell and David Hungerford, two pathologists from Philadelphia had found an unusual chromosomal pattern in chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) cells. In CML cells, Novell found that one copy of chromosome 22 had its head lopped off. Novell called this abnormality the Philadelphia chromosome after the place of discovery. In 1973, a hematologist in Chicago named Janet Bowley followed this study, looking for the missing pieces of the Philadelphia chromosome. She found a pattern. The missing head of chromosome 22 had attached itself to the tip of chromosome 9. And a piece of chromosome 9 had attached itself to chromosome 22. This genetic event was called a translocation the transposition of two pieces of chromosomes. Bowley found this same translocation in the cells of every CML patient. Cancer was not disorganized chaos, but an organized chromosomal chaos resulting from specific, identical mutations. Chromosome translocation can create new genes called chimeras by fusing two genes formerly located on two different chromosomes. The CML translocation, Rowley postulated, had created such a chimera. *** In 1969, Alfred Knudson, a geneticist at MD Anderson Cancer Center in Texas, wanted to capture a pattern of inheritance of cancer by studying retinoblastoma, an hereditary eye cancer. Retinoblstoma has two distinct variants, an inherited familial form and a sporadic form. Children who suffer from the familial form may have strong family histories of the disease, and they typically develop tumors in both eyes. Children with the sporadic form never have a history in the family and always have a tumor in only one eye. By studying cohorts of children with the two types of cancers, Knudson discovered the cohorts developed cancers at different speeds. Inherited retinoblastoma cancer develops at early ages, typically between 2 to 6 months old. Sporadic retinoblastoma cancer develops at older ages, typically between ages 2 to 4 years old. Humans inherit two copies of every gene, one from each parent. Knudson postulated that both copies of the Retinoblastoma (Rb) gene needed to be inactivated through mutation to develop retinoblastoma. Some children inherit one mutated version and one normal version of the Rb gene. The inherited mutation is the first hit. These children are thus predisposed to the cancer, and only a single additional genetic mutation is needed for them to develop the cancer. So they develop cancer at earlier ages. Sporadic retinoblastoma develops at later ages because two independent mutations have to accumulate in the cell. Knudson called this the two-hit hypothesis of cancer. For certain cancer-causing genes, two mutational hits are needed to produce cancer. At first glance, Knudsons two-hit theory seemed at odds with the src gene, which only required one activated copy to cause cancer. The answer is because the two genes perform two different functions. The src gene creates a hyperactive kinase that provokes perpetual cell division to cause cancer, while the Rb gene performs the opposite function. It is a cancer suppressor gene, or an anti-oncogene. It requires two mutation hits to inactivate such a gene. A Risky Prediction Risky prediction is a process scientists used to validate untested theories. For instance, the return of Halleys comet in 1758 validated Newtons law of gravity. The first risky prediction involved Varmus and Bishops hypothesis on oncogenes. In the late 1970s, Varmus and Bishop had shown that the precursors of oncogenes, also called proto-oncogenes, already existed in all normal cells. They hypothesized that mutations in such proto-oncogenes caused cancer. To prove that they were right, we needed to the mutated versions of such proto-oncogenes inside the cancer cells. How does one find such a gene? The MIT cancer biologist Robert Weinberg had an idea. If he transfers a fragment of the DNA containing the activated oncogene from the cancer cell into normal cells, then the activated oncogene should induce the normal cells to divide and proliferate, producing a foci out of the normal cells in the petri dish. By repeating this process and dividing the DNA fragments into smaller and smaller fragments, he should be able to isolate the culprit. In the summer of 1979, a graduate student in Weinbergs lab named Chiaho Shih went through the experiment using mouse cancer cells. He verified that the method worked for mouse cancer cells. They then moved on to human cancer cells. Three years later in 1982, Weinberg isolated a gene called ras from human cancer cells. The mutated ras gene encoded a hyperactive protein permanently locked on. It was the long-sought native human oncogene, captured out of a cancer cell. Meanwhile, two other scientists, Mariano Barbacid, and Michael Wigler had also independently discovered the ras gene in 1982. The second risky prediction the hypothesis that retinoblastoma was caused by the mutation of two copies of Rb genes. Thad Dryja, an ophthalmologist and geneticist, suspected that the mutation responsible was likely a deletion of the gene. To prove the hypothesis, Dryja wanted to prove that the two copies of the Rb gene were deleted from the cancer cells. Week after week, Dryja extracted the chromosomes from his big collections of tumors and ran his probe set against the chromosomes. Eventually, he saw a blank space in his probes. A piece of DNA was missing in probe H3-8 of the tumor cells. Dryja took his probe to Steve Friend who had a collection of normal cells in Weinbergs lab. Friend applied the H3-8 probe to normal cells and isolated the gene on that location. Both copies of the Rb genes were indeed deleted from the cancer cells. The third risky prediction involved the hypothesis that activated oncogenes cause cancer. We already knew that (1) activated oncogenes were present in cancer cells, and (2) they could be isolated from the cancer cells. To prove causation, we have to prove that activated oncogenes can create cancer in an animal. In 1984, using transgenic mouse technology, Philip Leders team at Harvard created transgenic mice with an activated c-myc gene expressed in the breast cells. The mice developed small tumors in their breast late in life after pregnancy. To test the roles of environmental stimuli and other oncogenes, Leder created a second OncoMouse with ras and myc expressed in breast cells. The mice developed tiny distinct tumors in their breasts in months, pregnancy not required. Scientists had created real, living tumors in an animal. The Hallmarks of Cancer Philip Leders experiment showed that scientists had created real tumors by manipulating two genes, ras and myc, in an animal. But activating two potent proto-oncogenes did not create the full syndrome of cancer in every cell of the mouse. It raised further questions about the genesis of cancer. In 1988, using human specimens, a physician named Bert Vogelstein set out to describe the number of genetic changes required to start cancer. Vogelstein studied how normal cells progress to cancer cells in colon cancer. He found a consistent pattern in his colon cancer samples. The genetic progression of cancer was a multi-step process. The transitions in the stages of cancer mirrored the transitions in genetic changes. Cancer cells did not activate or inactivate at random. Instead, the shift from a pre-malignant state to an invasive cancer correlated with the activation and inactivation of genes in a strict and stereotypical sequence. Cancer cells are caused by mutations of genes in their DNA. Besides uncontrolled growth, cancer cells also can resist death signals, grow their own blood vessels, and metastasize throughout the body. In January 2000, Robert Weinberg and Douglas Hanahan wrote the seminal paper, The Hallmarks of Cancer that gave the six essential changes in cell physiology that collectively cause cancer: Self-sufficiency in growth signals gas pedal stuck on Insensitivity to growth-inhibitory signals- brakes dont work Evading of programmed cell death (apoptosis) wont die Limitless replicative potential uncontrolled growth Sustained angiogenesis having its own blood supply Tissue invasion and metastasis
Thursday, September 19, 2019
Exploration I used to have such a pleasant outlook on life; it was cotton candy and soda pop all the way. No, wait, that's a lie. I never liked life much at all. Don't get me wrong I like the touch of a strong hand and the smell of fresh rain, but I have trouble with the fact that no one knows "why" or to what end. I've often hated other people. Sartre said "hell is other people" and I truly agree, but it is a self induced hell. There's this girl named Sarah in one of my classes; she sits in the back of class knitting. "Is my class so mundane that you have to entertain yourself by knitting?" the professor questioned her with a knitted brow. "Well, actually it's crocheting, but I suppose that doesn't change your outlook," she grunted in reply. "I don't think it's very responsible student behavior," an audible sigh escaped his pursed lips. I could just feel the tension mounting in the room. It gave me this hot feeling all over my body, an excitement. I felt so pleased by her punishment. I suppose that is not very Christian behavior, but I also suppose I am not very Christian. Sometimes I feel I should be more accepting of other people, mind you not very often, but on rare occasions empathy overcomes me. You must already feel I am a rather unlikable person, but I don't believe that to be true. As I sit in my four cornered room writing to you, my reader, I suppose I might like you, given the proper circumstances. You see, I am a judge. I didn't want the job. I never applied and I don't enjoy it, but this is what I am. I know it seems impossible to believe that a twenty-one-year-old woman could be a judge, but it is true. I preside over a huge court and everyone and everything I meet is subject to my judgements. I oversee all of it, from dew drizzled lush landscapes to decrepit bag ladies. Right now I judge my fingers and toes and the poor soul next to me. I judge proven scientific experiments and baseless philosophical arguments. I sit and stare at this nauseating orange tabletop in this disturbingly small cubicle. I shiver at the thought of how many fingers have typed on these same keys and the meaningless jargon or incredible realizations they have produced.
Wednesday, September 18, 2019
Ã¢â¬Å"America the beautiful, Who are you beautiful for?Ã¢â¬ Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã America, the land of opportunity, but is it really? America is made up of people of many different cultural and social backgrounds. The constitution of the people reads that as Americans, these people are entitled to life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness. These rights were designed in part to attain a sense of equality within the individual so that a sense of unity would exist. Because of the structures within society that influence a personÃ¢â¬â¢s character such as the educational, corporate and governmental structures there are many differences in the social, economic, and political sense amongst the individuals. There is a select group who are more educated that come from the more prestigious and wealthy backgrounds as opposed to those who come from the working middle class and poor levels. The opportunities are much different due to the effects of these institutions and the socioeconomic levels that children are born into. If the economic resources are abundant, than success is easier to attain. By looking at the exclusive clubs that the wealthy belong to and the differences in the educational institutions that children attend, it is evident that the individual born into a wealthy family is more apt to achieve success than one who is brought up in a working class family. One of the main keys to success is to establish networks and organizations in support of the corporate community. These networks form a social cohesion which is based on two types of relationships found in a membership network: common membership in specific social institutions and friendships based on social interactions within those institutions. Social cohesion creates a group identity where members of the social groups are seen to be exclusive and of high status. Ã¢â¬Å"The social bonding can be seen as one reason why the social rich are cohesive enough to dominate the rest of society despite their numbers.Ã¢â¬ (Domhoff, G. William, Who Rules America? p.72) Used as indicators of upper class standing, the exclusive clubs are used as a reinforcement to separate the wealthy from the working-class. The Bohemian Club is one of the most widely known clubs that caters to the upper class, corporate leaders, celebrities, and government officials. This retreat intertwines the upper class with the corporate community to ... ...ources in their educational institutions. Through the social institutions of the upper class as well as the educational systems of both the upper and lower classes, it is evident that there exists an inequality in the class structure. More opportunities exist for the upper class from the early years of their childhood leading up to the membership of exclusive clubs and through attendance of private schools. The most important factor of success is a good education and most low-income families are denied this because of zoning reasons. Besides having a good education, it is at oneÃ¢â¬â¢s advantage to be a part of a network or social club which will support them and guide them through their career. These social clubs exist primarily among the more affluent families. In order to even out the scales of opportunity, the educational systems have to be re-evaluated so that students receive adequate resources in a safe environment. Parents must also help in showing their support in the educational and motivational sense. Being born into a certain social class does determine oneÃ¢â¬â¢s future if they do not realize that there are more opportunities out there besides that ones that are most apparent.
Tuesday, September 17, 2019
The Creeds of the church were key parts of the origins of the church. They lay the foundation for the first years of the church in order to accomplish the mission given to the Apostles by Jesus. Two of these creeds were the Apostles Creed and the Nicene Creed. Culture during that time period was key to the layout of these creeds and the messages they set. A creed was an early statement of Christian beliefs, and a symbol for others to follow by. There were numerous cultures and needs that led to the ultimate development and writing of the creeds, which are still used for their original purpose today. One of these needs was for the church to have a basic statement of beliefs, which was accomplished by the Apostles creed. Early Christians knew that people needed to have an understanding of what they believed in that wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t requiring a lot of research. Cultures of the people and the time period also had a great influence on the creation of these creeds. They needed a way to sprea d the word of Christ to all people, in a time period where we didnÃ¢â¬â¢t have the technology and communication options that we have today. A combination of the churches basic needs for success and the fact that the word needed to be spread were two of the leading causes in the creations of these creeds. One of the most important reasons that led to the creation of the church was the essential need of the early church to have a document which listed the basic beliefs and practices of the Catholic Church. This was created by the authority of the church, the apostles appointed by Christ to lead the church. They had to find a way to spread the church of God, and these creeds provided a method to complete this task. None of the churches at the time had all books tha... ...hrist, along with making sure everyone in the Church understood the basic beliefs of the Catholic Church. The creeds provided both of these, as they clearly stated what things the Catholic Church supported and instructions for its followers. These were vitally important to the success of the Church. Now, there was a set list of things that every catholic person could look to if they began to lose sight of their faith in the Catholic beliefs. They also served as an effective method of communicating the ideas of God to all cultures, allowing the word of God to be communicated to people of many different cultures and beliefs. The languages they were written in were widely spoken in that time period; therefore many could understand it without needing a translator. This allowed the Creeds to spread the word to the entire world, just as Jesus instructed the apostles to.
1. How much business risk does American Home Products face? How much financial risk would American Home Products face at each of the proposed levels of debt shown in case Exhibit 3? How much potential value, if any can American Home Products create for its shareholders at each of the proposed levels of debt? (See Exhibits 1 and 2 ) American Home Products currently has low business risk due to the conservative nature of their business. They piggyback on first movers to lower their research and development costs. They excel in marketing therefore they concentrate on outselling their competitors. Also, they have low business risk because they are diversified among four product lines: prescription drugs, over the counter drugs, food products, and housewares producing over 1500 products. Three of American Home ProductsÃ¢â¬â¢ product lines (prescription drugs, over the counter drugs, and food products) are within the defensive industries which mean they have little sensitivity to the business cycle. These industries outperform others even when the economy is bad. In addition, through diversification of manufacturing a variance of product lines, if one product line were to experience a decrease in sales, the other lines should theoretically pick up the slack. AMH appears to be a healthy company when looking at its financial statements. AMHÃ¢â¬â¢s net worth (total assets-total debt) is 1,472.8 million. They have an excess cash of $233 million. Their ROE, profit margin, ROA, and A/R receivable turnover days all illustrate AMHÃ¢â¬â¢s financial strength indicating that they can rapidly generate cash to sustain their current growth rate, at 30.3%, 11.7%, 18.72%, AND 49.73 days respectively. AMH outperforms their industry in all above mentioned ratios. (See Exhibit #1). However it should be noted that their sales have decreased 5.3% from 14.1% in 1978 to 8.8% in 1981. This foreshadows possible risk in the future. This is why AMH is rethinking their conservative and Ã¢â¬Å"tightfisted spendingÃ¢â¬ business approaches. Currently AMHÃ¢â¬â¢s financial performance is strong. (Refer to Exhibit #2). Their high return on equity (ROE) at 30.3% illustrates how much profit the company is generating with the shareholderÃ¢â¬â¢s investments. In addition, they have low debt to equity and low debt to asset (debt) ratios both at .005. This further signals their financial strength. From the debt ratios we see that a change decrease in sales or an increase in interest payments would not affect AMH because they have plenty of free cash flow. However the debt ratios also indicate that management may not be responsibly growing the company through the use of leverage and forgoing many opportunities for future growth. Therefore when you compare the increase of debt alternatives AMH has you can see an increase in debt to equity and debt to debt to asset ratios. For example the debt to equity ratio increases at each level, 30%, 50%, and 70%, to .17,.32, and .513 respectively. The same is true for the debt to asset ratio. It increases to .15,.24,and .34 at 30%,50%,and 70% respectively. Although these could signal financial solvency issues, the industryÃ¢â¬â¢s debt to equity ratio is .32, and their debt to asset ratio is .24. This is consistent with the AMHÃ¢â¬â¢s 50% debt alternative option. However, the increase of debt adds value to the company. This is best illustrated when looking at the earnings per share (EPS) and dividend payout ratio. As the debt increases so do both of the above mentioned ratios. EPS consistently increases from 3.18 with no added leverage to 3.33 at 30%, 3.41 at 50%, and 3.49 at 70%. The DPS ratio increase from .597 at no additional leverage to .602 at 70%. Shareholders often interpret an increase in dividends as an increase in confidence of future growth within the company. AMH is financially strong; however, the provided statistics show it would be best for the company to increase its leverage to a certain level to add more value to the stockholders. If it merely utilizes the excess cash flow of $233 million to repurchase stocks it only adds value to the stockholders in the short run. In the long run AMH should increase their leverage investing in areas such as R&D of new and existing products. This will not only increase value for the company but essentially add value to the stockholders. This reduces AMHÃ¢â¬â¢s probable future risk of losing market share to competitors. I believe the certain level is the 30% alternative. 2. What capital structure would you recommend as appropriate for AHP? What are the advantages of leveraging this company? The disadvantages? How would leveraging up affect the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s taxes? How would the capital markets react to a decision by the company to increase the use of debt in its capital structure? I would recommend the 30% capital structure level. One reason I chose this level is because of the already conservative business atmosphere. This level will receive less resistance for acceptance than the higher levels of 50% and 70%. It still keeps them above the industry on all performance ratios. (Recall that the industry is more consistent with the 50% alternative option.) This will increase their DPS from $1.90 to $2.00. This will increase confidence among investors. Their EPS will increase from 3.18 to 3.33 signally they are increasing value for the stockholders. AMHÃ¢â¬â¢s dividend payout ratio will increase from .597 to .601. Their stock price should also increase from $30.00 to $35.66. This is forecasted by dividing the total market value of common stock ($4,838.56) by the average common shares outstanding (135.7 million). In addition there are other advantages of increase the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s leverage. They include: creating a tax shield, generating more free cash flow for future expansions, generating more free cash flow to repurchase stock, a short run increase in EPS due to repurchase of stocks, and overall an increase to the intrinsic value of the company. As always with advantages, disadvantages are present to. They include: an increase in financial risk. Despite the tax shield, the interest payment will result in a decrease to net income, and the bond rating could decrease to a AA status. The bond rating for a AAA is determined by a 18 Times Interest Earned Ratio. Once AMH increases their leverage to 30%, they will decrease their TIE to 17.50. Whereas, a AA is currently rated around a 9, further debt acquisition could result in a decrease of their bond rating and a decrease in value for stockholders. (Calculation: EBIT/Interest= tie ratio 922.2/52.,7=17.50) Although the increased leverage decreases the amount of earnings available to stock holders from 496.9 million to 451.7 million for a total of 45.2 million dollars, it has a positive affect for the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s tax structure. It actually reduces the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s tax liability by 83 million dollars! Without the debt they have to pay 952.5 million dollars in taxes. However after an increase of 30% leverage, the new tax liability is 869.5 million dollars. Although the accounting value of the stock price appears more significant, the market value of the stock price will increase, too. Since you have to factor in the new liability of $362.2 million dollars for the debt, he new stockholdersÃ¢â¬â¢ equity will be calculated at $4838.86 less 233 less 362.2 in millions arriving at $4,243.66 reducing the number of stock repurchases by 19.126.. Then dividing the new stockholdersÃ¢â¬â¢ equity by shares outstanding (136.374) and arriving at the new stock price of $31.12. 3. How might AHP implement a more aggressive capital structure policy? What are the alternative methods for leveraging up? The obvious alternative for AMH to implement a more aggressive capital structure policy is to acquire more debt by utilizing the other options at 50% or 70%. Alternative methods for leveraging up include: purchasing shares of outstanding stock at the same time as the company issues bonds, create convertible security options for their stockholders where they can turn in stocks for the new bond securities, buy fixed assets, and utilizing derivatives in hedge funds to leverage the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s assets. 4. In view of AHPÃ¢â¬â¢s unique corporate culture, what arguments would you advance to persuade Mr. Laporte or his successor to adopt your recommendation? The very first thing I will do is show Mr. Laporte my charts that illustrate how increasing debt will bring an increase of overall stockholders wealth. My Laport believes that a companyÃ¢â¬â¢s main goal is to build value for stockholders, so I will start there. Since, I know he will be still be reluctant, I next will show him how the debt can be repurchased by AHP at a later date if he feels necessary. I will show him that the earnings available at the end of the year for common stockholders are more than the total debt amount. I will further show him that the net worth of the company is $1,654.5 which also could absorb the costs. (The second option would actually be the better of the two options for repurchase of debt.) Then, I will show Mr. Laporte how the tax advantage will save the company 83 million dollars in the first year! I will reassure him that the financial ratios already illustrate that he has superb management skills and can efficiently and effectively manage the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s assets, thus he will excel with the new capital structure. Furthermore, the new leverage will still keep the company outperforming competitors within the industry. I will show him the industry ratio chart below. Lastly, I will suggest the increased free cash flow can also be utilized in research and development and perhaps gain a new absolute advantage!
Monday, September 16, 2019
The Policy Process, Part II University of Phoenix HCS 455 The Policy Process, Part II In the paper the author discussed The Policy Process, Part I on how Medicare part D became a policy. The author discussed the details on the formulation, legislative, and implementation stages of the policy. Now time to look at the final stages of the process, of Medicare Part D. Which are evaluation, analysis, revision, and methodology stages. In every policy there will be an evaluation stage to see how the policy will work and what needs to be done to evaluate the process. Evaluation StageThe evaluation stage is a process in which policymakers in the Senate and House look at a policy and evaluate the future outcomes of a policy in this case Medicare Part D. For instance once of the evaluation process would be how policymakers would evaluate the pharmaceutical companies to make sure to keep prescription costs down. Another would be to evaluate how many senior citizens are enrolling in the plan. As well as making sure senior citizens have all the information available to them to choose the correct plan that fits their prescription needs. For instance the Kaiser Foundation did a study on the technical problems of Medicare Part D.One of KaiserÃ¢â¬â¢s findings seen confusion on which prescriptions would be covered from the numerous plans that an individual can choose from. As well, as medical providers not getting the new medical software to transition Medicare Part D into their computer systems. This meant that difference agencies like, doctors, insurance companies, and pharmacies run different programs and that have different policies on how to share patientÃ¢â¬â¢s information. Now on the other hand, if all these agencies can have the same software this would allow everyone in the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s medical circle to share the same codes and computer language.Thus, not having to have a great deal of public pain and confusion about the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s drug coverageÃ¢â¬â¢s. Another problem was transferring large patientÃ¢â¬â¢s files from one insurer to another insurer can take up to six months, from a 2004 study from the Medicare Payment Advisory Commission(Terri Emerick, 2006). One of the solutions to these problems would be to evaluate the information which is being sent to senior citizens. Medicare should send out their booklet to all senior citizens that are in the drug plan. All senior citizens should write down their medications which they are taking.Many seniors that do go to their local senior centers should go online and check out the Medicare website for information. As well calling Medicare to ask questions about which plan will work best for them. Do not forget to talk to your local pharmacist he or she might be able to tell the names of the plans which cover the prescriptions. By evaluating these areas policymakers can get information from outside agencies to do research and come up with results from polls, interviews, and surveys. In ev aluating all this information policymakers can form an analysis of Medicare Part D and see what need to be done.Analysis Stage Analyzing Medicare Part D as the author stated earlier one of the problems where the technical problems between the different agencies and sharing patients information. On February 17, 2009 President Obama signed a $787 billion dollar stimulus bill which puts $150 billion dollars on spending health information technology (Omini MD, 2009). This new plan physicians and health professionals will now receive incentives for implementing IT programs into their computer systems. Becoming paperless will maximize Medicare as well as physicians and medical professionals.By 2015 it will be mandatory that all physicians and medical professionals use IT programs. The United States Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) by December 31, 2009 under the stimulus act will develop a set of standards, implementation methods, and criteria for the new IT system to be in pl ace (Chris Silvia, 2009). Another analysis was made about the enrollment period. The enrollment period to enroll in a drug coverage plan is from November 15th through December 31st. Many elderly individuals felt they were getting rushed into signing up for a plan.Most of them were confused and explaining why they must pick a new drug coverage program every year. Many individuals fail to sign up within the six week time frame due to their medical or mental condition. This is something that would need to be analyzed and see if they can extend the enrollment period from six week to 12 weeks. Start the enrollment period on October 1st instead of November 15th. This would give many elderly individuals plenty enough time to pick, choose, and switch plans before the December 31st end date.In this entire analysis one must think there should be revisions made to the policy to make it better. Revision Stage In revising a policy starts by looking to see which policies need to be updated or cha nged to make the policy better. On September 5, 2008 one of the revisions in Medicare Part D was the use of Electronic Prescription Program (E-prescribing) Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) expects that Medicare Part D sponsors will have all the necessary contracts and systems in place should prescribers desire to use E-prescribing (Claudia Schlosberg, n. . ) As stated in the paragraph above with IT systems for physicians and health professionals using paperless system will maximize Medicare. This revision will not only help out pharmacies but help out physicians. Now this information will allows doctors to find out what prescriptions the patient has used in the past and where the patient usually goes to pick up his or her medications from. By revising this policy everyone in the medical community can deliver faster and better care for the individual.Since many senior citizens continue to do work, due to their low income, CMS has revised a section on Medicare Part D f or employers. Employers whom are offering medication drug coverageÃ¢â¬â¢s to Medicare individuals will now disclose to CMS if the plans the employer is offering are creditable. To make sure that the prescription drug plans are creditable, the plans must equal or exceed the actuarial value of defined standard prescription drug coverage under CMS guidelines (Kutak Rock, 2007).This revision in Medicare Part D is very important for seniors, this way seniors can know if the program that they have from work is creditable and make a decision on whether or not he or she should waive the enrollment of Medicare Part D. They employer must submit to CMS all the prescription drug plans that they offer to see if the plans follow CMS guidelines. Employers must also send out information to those individuals in the plan on or before the Medicare Part D enrollment date of November 15th of each year. Purpose and MethodologiesOne of the methodologies in Medicare Part D was to make sure senior citizen s get help with their drug prescription costs. Even thou CMS has many plans to choose from seniors need to do their part in researching some of the plans via internet, CMS hotline, and talking to their pharmacist. In turn the E-prescribing was another to help physicians and pharmacies to collect information more quickly without using any paper. By having everything computerized pharmacists can receive and gather information quickly compared to the old practice of using a fax machine.Using a computer eliminates misplaced fax paper, paper jams, or the fax did not go through. This saves time and money on both parts for the physician and pharmacists. IT software stimulus package the president Obama signed this year to help all healthcare professions to go paperless and receive patientÃ¢â¬â¢s information more quickly than before. This as well will save time and money for healthcare professionals in managing patientÃ¢â¬â¢s data to make sure all parties involved get the information the y need for billing and medical information.So these are just some of the purposes and methodologies for some changes in the Medicare Part D. Conclusion As more senior citizens coming into retirement Medicare Part D will be a major focus of discussion on the political front. Both Democrats and Republicans have different ideas on how to evaluate, analyze, and revise Medicare Part D. Of course, from the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s perspective having IT software programs in place will help out indeed for all healthcare professionals and providers. Now with the Obama stimulus plan sign this year hopefully, all healthcare professions can be on the same track to get these IT systems in place.The benefits are enormous to getting information faster to the right people, especially in an emergency. Although CMS needs to do a better job on informing seniors about the prescription drug plans, so that way they can make better judgments on the plan they choose. Even better yet cut down on some of these plans these are way too many of them and they are confusing seniors on which plan to choose from. Either way policymakers from both sides need to work with healthcare professional to see what can be done to improve on Medicare Part D. References Chris Silvia (2009).Practices paperless before 2012 could maximize Medicare bonuses. Retrieved December 2, 2011, from http://www. ama-assn. org/amednews/2009/03/16/gvsa0316. htm Claudia Schlosberg (n. d. ). CMS Revises Medicare Prescription Drug Benefit Manuel-Chapter 7 Medication Therapy Management and Quality Improvement Program. Retrieved December 2, 2011, from http://www. ascp. com/advocacy/upload/ASCP%20Summary%20of %20CMS%20Chap%207%20Revisions. pdf Kutak Rock (2007). Medicare Part D: CMS Revises Model Notice and Disclosure Notice Requirements. Retrieved December 2, 2011, from http://www. utakrock. com/publications/employeebenefits/EBCA1107. pdf Omini MD (2011). Medicaid, health IT to see billions from stimulus package signed by Obama. Retri eved December 2, 2011, from http://www. myemrstimulus. com/tag/emr-software/ Omni MD (n. d. ). Medicaid, health IT to see billions from stimulus package signed by Obama. Retrieved December 2, 2011, from http://www. myemrstimulus. com/tag/emr-software/ Terri Emerick (2006). Part D:Rx for Disaster. Retrieved December 2, 2011, from http://www. epluribusmedia. org/archives/features/2006/0511part_d. html
Sunday, September 15, 2019
Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬â¢Identity has been increasingly used to refer to the social and historical make-up of a person, personality as a construct. Sometimes such identities are conceived narrowly psychological, individualist terms, as the cumulative result of personal experience and family historyÃ¢â¬ This is seen particularly in Beowulf where all men are referred to as their fathersÃ¢â¬â¢ sonsÃ¢â¬â¢. Family history was massively important in those times and men well often well respected because of the heroic things their ancestors had done. Warriors also felt the need to reach the same level of notoriety. This is shown when we are first introduced to Beowulf. We are told about his father before even knowing his name: Ã¢â¬Å"In his day, my father was a famous man a noble warrior-lord named EcgtheowÃ¢â¬ Similarly in ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s Hamlet, purely through learning of HamletÃ¢â¬â¢s lineage we discover he is the son of the king and this plays an important part of his identity and the events throughout the play. In most novels, plays and poems, the identity of the protagonist changes the more we get to know the character; the more that happens the more we think we know what they are like. This is the same for real life, when we first meet people we are often uncertain about their identity and personality, we usually learn more about them through their actions and associations. This is true for Beowulf; because it is set in the third person we learn about him through what he does and what he says. A text being in third person can also be useful; the narrator can offer definite and universal truths about the character which can be especially useful as it is almost impossible for a writer to create a character that will be interpreted the same way by every person that reads it. Characters are read in different ways throughout the generations and from culture to culture. It could therefore be argued that identity is not created through the author but by the readers. Hamlet, being a play, has many long soliloquies where he reveals his inner thoughts to the audience in first person. In soliloquies the character usually asks a rhetorical question and then answers it; this allows the audience to understand the characterÃ¢â¬â¢s emotions and motives, something especially important in Hamlet where some of his actions would be considered very unconventional or deranged. This helps us to empathise with Hamlet and engage ourselves in the plot. Ã¢â¬Å"O that this tooÃ too solid flesh would melt, Thaw, and resolve itself into a dew! Or that the Everlasting had not fixÃ¢â¬â¢d His canon Ã¢â¬â¢gainst self-slaughter! O God! O God! How weary, stale, flat, and unprofitableÃ¢â¬ This is the beginning of HamletÃ¢â¬â¢s first soliloquy when he learns of his fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s death and his motherÃ¢â¬â¢s betrayal by marrying Claudius less than two months after his fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s death. He contemplates suicide to escape what he describes as a Ã¢â¬Ëweary stale, flat and unprofitableÃ¢â¬â¢ world and wishes it was not a sin against God. Not only does this soliloquy reveal his true feelings about his mother and Claudius, it shows us that he is religious which accounts for his delay in murdering the new King even under his dead fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s orders. The thoughts of other characters, not only the protagonist are important as they help to keep the play timeless. In Hamlet, murder is nothing abnormal, almost expected whereas now it is a very serious offence for anyone, including the monarchy. Not only that, but seeing a ghost is not normal behaviour for a 21st century reader, without the other characters seeing the ghost we would be unable to distinguish between reality and HamletÃ¢â¬â¢s madness. Horatio talks to the ghost like it is a real thing: Ã¢â¬Å"Horatio: Stay, speak, speak, I charge thee speak.Ã¢â¬ It can be concluded that identity is how the characters act within the times in which they live in. Identity is therefore impossible to create without the concept of time and the context that the text was written in. Texts are sometimes altered to appeal more to certain audiences from different times and locations such as: Ã¢â¬Å"Hormone ImbalanceÃ¢â¬â¢s Ophelia (1979), in which Ophelia is a lesbian and runs off with a woman servant to join a guerrilla commune; CurtisÃ¢â¬â¢s obscenely funny The skinhead Hamlet (1982) and Jean BettÃ¢â¬â¢s Ophelia thinks harder (1993), in which the heroine acts assertively while the hero dithers.Ã¢â¬ This goes against the thesis that states identity is created by experience and implies that identity is subject to time, location and the audience it is written for. It could also be argued that each of these different variations of Hamlet have created a completely different identity in each text. SomeoneÃ¢â¬â¢s identity is not fixed; it changes over time as the character develops and often through self discovery or even (In the case of Hamlet) an identity crisis due to conflicted values and internal and external pressures. The shift in opinions and ideas of the character constructs a more complicated identity that is more difficult to label. Throughout the whole text, Beowulf has the same ambitions and desires; to be a legendary warrior. Hamlet on the other hand discovers his morality and desires as he goes a long. This makes HamletÃ¢â¬â¢s identity much less solid and more complex. He is not a normal character in the sense that he goes against social norms; his unorthodox approach to life and the truth means he is isolated and becomes a threat to those around him, specifically the new King. In the beginning of the play, Hamlet seems to have lost his identity; he has lost his father (like Beowulf lineage was of great importance, especially being part of the monarchy), his status as heir to the throne is in jeopardy as Fortinbras plans to attack and his uncle is now his step father. Beowulf establishes his identity as a warrior and a hero by recounting his successful endeavours: Ã¢â¬Å"They had seen me bolstered in the blood of enemiesÃ when I battled and bound five beasts,Ã raided a troll-nest and in the night seaÃ slaughtered sea-brutes. I have suffered extremesÃ and avenged the Geats (their enemies brought it upon themselves, I devastated them).Ã¢â¬ Beowulf is a warrior more by reputation than what he actually does throughout the duration of the text. Although he defeats Grendel fairly quickly after being introduced to us, and after that GrendelÃ¢â¬â¢s mother, fifty years pass without much detail of BeowulfÃ¢â¬â¢s triumphs. The form of both texts has an impact on the identity of both Beowulf and Hamlet as individuals but also society as a whole in the two texts. Beowulf is an epic poem which are traditionally used to recount heroic acts and important events in history. This gives the text an authentic feel as well as reflecting the culture of the times in which Beowulf lived in; most stories were shared by word of mouth, often by song or poetry and not often documented. Men craved the notoriety and were willing to die in battle doÃ achieve it. The unusualness of an epic poem also reflects complete difference of the world we live in where we not only have no warrior culture, people generally donÃ¢â¬â¢t die for fame and monsters donÃ¢â¬â¢t exist. Hamlet being a play is much more than just the text and was written to be performed instead of just read. HamletÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬â and every other characterÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬â identity is created not only through his choices and the things he says but how he says them and facial expressions/movement. For example HamletÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬ËmadnessÃ¢â¬â¢ can be seen much easier through exaggerated actions than it can be through stage directions or obvious comments from other actors. Personality traits such as thoughtfulness, arrogance, insecurity and ClaudiusÃ¢â¬â¢ guilt can also be seen more clearly when performed on stage. Another complication of Hamlet being on stage is that every actor will play the part differently. Not only will age and clothing affect perceptions of identity, the way in which scenes are acted out will also change the character. One way of creating a complex identity is through giving the character a fatal flaw. This is most prominent in Hamlet; his fatal flaw is his indecisiveness to act on his fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s orders. Every event in the play leading to HamletÃ¢â¬â¢s death and including every other death except that of his fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s was down to his inability to make a decision to kill Claudius and act on it. Not only does his hesitation to kill Claudius in prayer expose his fatal flaw but if he had gone ahead with the act then he could have been seen as evil and his identity would have changed dramatically, this adds to the argument that it is the plot and events in the text that construct the characterÃ¢â¬â¢s identity. Language also has an effect on emphasising certain aspects of a characters identity. For example the clown Ã¢â¬â clown is not necessarily the same as a clown in the 21st century, in Shakespearean times a clown was not a very important member of society Ã¢â¬â in Hamlet creates a contrast and almost acts to remind us of HamletÃ¢â¬â¢s social status and power. The clown also adds an element of humour to the scene which breaks up the tension and acts to emphasise HamletÃ¢â¬â¢s melancholic nature. Ã¢â¬Å"HAMLET: HereÃ¢â¬â¢s another. Why may not that be the skull of a lawyer? Where be his quiddities now, his quillets, his cases, his tenures, and his tricks? Why does he suffer thisÃ mad knave now to knock him about the sconce with a dirty shovel, and will not tell him of his action of battery? Hum! This fellow might be inÃ¢â¬â¢s time a great buyer of land, with his statutes, his recognizances, his fines, his double vouchers, his recoveries. Is this the fine of his fines, and the recovery of his recoveries, to have his fine pate full of fine dirt? Will his vouchers vouch him no more of his purchases, and double ones too, than the length and breadth of a pair of indentures? The very conveyances of his lands will scarcely lie in this box, and must thÃ¢â¬â¢inheritor himself have no more, ha?Ã¢â¬ Contrasting language by using words together in this soliloquy such as Ã¢â¬ËshovelÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËdirtÃ¢â¬â¢ with Ã¢â¬ËrecognizancesÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËconveyancesÃ¢â¬â¢ demonstate his conflicting identity. The Ã¢â¬ËHa?Ã¢â¬â¢ at the end also acts as a rhetorical question which marks a change on his views of wealth, power and death. In conclusion, although identity of a character has many contributing factors, the protagonists in both texts would have no identity at all without experiences that shaped their personality and traits throughout the text. Although language and form have an effect on identity, it is the plot that has the most impact on the character.
Saturday, September 14, 2019
During the 20th century, the earth's average surface temperature increased by 0. 6Ã ° Ã ± (). 2Ã °C (Folland et al. 2001), and thereÃ¢â¬â¢s strong evidence that human activities are the main cause of this trend (Mitchell et al. 2001). This increase in global surface temperature is thought to have at least some effect on the frequency of extreme weather events due to climate changes (Folland et al. 2001), and there is concern that these changes will have an enormous impact on various industries (Hitz and Smith 2004). Balancing environmental measures with economic development, that is, working toward sustainable development, is the fundamental goal of global environmental policies, including those for global warming (Hijioka, Masui, Takahashi, Matsuoka, and Harasawa 2006). Over the last decade, scientists have extensively studied the greenhouse effect, which holds that the accumulation of carbon dioxide (CO2) is expected to produce global warming and other significant climatic changes over the next century (Mendelsohn, Nordhaus and Shaw, 1994). In this essay, we will be discussing about the impact to an analysis of global warming change effects on agriculture and insurance industries, and some qualitative conclusions on the relative importance of the government decision. Numerous studies indicate major impacts on agriculture, especially if there is significant mid-continental drying and warming in the country (Mendelsohn et al. , 1994). Normally, sky-high food prices reflect scarcity caused by crop failure. Stocks are run down as everyone lives off last year's stores. This year harvests have been poor in some places, notably Australia, where the drought-hit wheat crop failed for the second year running. And world cereals stocks as a proportion of production are the lowest ever recorded. The run-down has been accentuated by the decision of large countries (America and China) to reduce stocks to save money (Peterson, 1979). With respect to research on global warming, United States and other international research programs are aiming towards improving future predictions. Such programs are arguably weakest in modelling feedbacks from human activities, including effects of trends towards greater urbanization and deforestation on local and regional climates. Economic incentives and culturally motivated practices are in large part driving changes in land use. Understanding incentives and responses by individuals, companies, and governments in developing countries will strengthen the human behavioural component of feedbacks to the climate system. U. S farm policy merits reform to increase farmersÃ¢â¬â¢ flexibility in responding to climatic changes without financial penalties that government programs may potentially give to such responses. Besides, government also introduce price support programs to inhibit climate change adaptation. Subsidies, tariffs and non-tariff barriers continue to distort world trade in agriculture and food. Subsidised prices reduce the ability of farmers in non-subsidising countries to earn a sustainable income and generate the capital required to increase production and improve productivity (Hill, Cronk and Wickramasekera, 2011). For example, todayÃ¢â¬â¢s farmers are paid any positive difference between the support price for any program commodity and the international market price. International commodity markets smooth the price effects of production and consumption shocks, so changes in the patterns of food consumption induced by climate change thus are tempered by open trade or called free trade (Robert and Sally, 1995). Free trade occurs when there is an absence of barriers to the free flow of goods and services between countries Free trade might also increase the efficiency with which a countryÃ¢â¬â¢s stock of resources of resources, as increased supplies of labour and capital from abroad become available for use within the country (Hill, Cronk and Wickramasekera, 2011). One manifestation insight is the joint implementation approach to greenhouse gas reductions initiated by several countries, including the U. S. Under joint implementation, the least costly projects to reduce greenhouse gas emissions or enhance carbon sinks can be pursued jointly across countries by, in essence, giving private agents and governments opportunities to meet emission reduction targets anywhere and in cooperation with ay others around the world. For example, forestry projects are one of the important outcomes of joint implementation in agriculture industry. Planting trees in reforestation or afforestation projects enhances the absorptive capacity of the biosphere and leads to carbon dioxide reductions in the atmosphere(Robert and Sally, 1995). Besides, Tesco, a European supermarket chain, is beginning a program to provide a global warming rating for everything it sells (Scot, 2007). The chain is creating an index to measure the Ã¢â¬Å"carbon footprintÃ¢â¬ required to produce, package, and transport ach product in its stores. Consumers can then include the carbon footprint along with price and product quality when making purchasing decisions. Weather and climate are Ã¢â¬ËÃ¢â¬Ëcore businessÃ¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬â¢ for the insurance industry. Many extreme weather events such as cyclones, hailstorms, bushfires and floods are projected to increase in either intensity or frequency under climate change. A changing, less predictable climate has the potential to reduce the insurance industryÃ¢â¬â¢s capacity to calculate, price and spread this weather-related risk. In Australia, 19 out of the 20 most costly natural disasters, in terms of property insurance losses, have been weather related (Michael, 2007). While insurers face huge risks for societyÃ¢â¬â¢s failure to act to curb greenhouse gas emissions, there are untapped opportunities for the insurance industry to use its financial muscle to push for changes in government policies as well as damaging business practices of the oil and fossil fuel power generating companies and the auto industry, to name the most obvious (Carrie, 2003). Analysis of the risks associated with climate change provides insurance companies with a working example of the benefits in considering long-term as well as short term issues. Understanding long-term risks and opportunities enables insurers to ensure our business is sustainable in the long term, while generating enduring shareholder value (Michael, 2007). Insurers and reinsurers using their considerable financial resources as Ã¢â¬Å"catalystsÃ¢â¬ for the development of renewable, emission reductions and energy efficient technologies could serve the industry by reducing risks and opening up new lines of business activity (Carrie, 2003). Government is committed to undertaking further research to increase the scientific understanding of the impacts of global warming, to identify ways to reduce the impact that global warming is expected to have on society and to identify insurance based, policies incentives for a reduction in future greenhouse gas emissions. However, success in dealing with this global problem requires action across the entire economy. While we are learning more about the economics and geophysics of global warming, policy makers should continue to seek ways to minimize social costs of climate change and change mitigation, a process which the economics profession has much to contribute. Prominent examples of efficiency-enhancing policy measures are he promotion of free trade, the liberalization of farm policy, and the joint implementation of greenhouse gas reduction objectives under the Framework Convention on Climate change (Robert and Sally, 1995). Climate change presents a strong case for the need for business, governments and community groups to work together to find sustainable solutions to this critical challenge of the 21st century (Michael, 2007).
Friday, September 13, 2019
Shaken Baby Syndrome - Essay Example Today, SBS is recognised as a form of child abuse through out the world and there are laws to protect the child from SBS. This is a serious problem and it is estimated that about 25% to 30% of infant victims with SBS die from their injuries. It is important to note that nonfatal consequences of SBS include varying degrees of visual, motor and cognitive impairments that will last all through life. Studies have also found that the direct costs of child maltreatment are $24 billion annually while indirect costs often exceed an estimated $69 billion annually in USA (2001) (National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, 2006). It is because of the papers published by John Caffey that SBS is today recognized as a child abuse. Caffey was a radiologist specializing in pediatric cases. Caffey stressed on the point that the multiple limb fractures he observed in babies were the result of abuse. However, it was not until Kempe and his associates at the University of Colorado Medical Center in Denver published their seminal article in 1962 that the theories of Caffey and others began to gain popularity and recognition (Leestma, 2006). In general, the injuries that characterize Shaken Baby Syndrome are intracranial hemorrhage i.e. bleeding in and around the brain; retinal hemorrhage i.e. bleeding in the retina of the eye; and other fractures of the ribs and at the ends of the long bones. The impact trauma may add on to the injuries such as bruises, lacerations or other fractures (Sirotnak, et al., 2004). Shaken Baby Syndrome predominantly occurs in infants less than one year of age. These infants below the age of one are susceptible because of their relatively large sized heads, heavy brains and weak neck muscles. The violent shaking of an infant causes the shearing of blood vessels around the brain and subdural haematoma causing irreversible damage to the nerve cells. As a result of these injuries, brain swelling and a lack of blood and oxygen may result, producing further damage to the infant's brain and other parts of the body. It is usually the parent or the caregiver who is involved in violently shaking an infant that may result in SBS and most of the experts believe that the reasons for this violent act are common in most of the cases such as frequent crying and toileting behavior. The new parents find it difficult to cope with certain behaviors of their new born child and in such cases the crying baby can become the trigger for frustration of parent or caregiver and may result in violent shaking of the baby. Since the time it is recognized as child abuse, several measures have been taken for the prevention of SBS. Additionally, the identification, evaluation, investigation, management and prevention of SBS require a multidisciplinary approach. It also relies on the knowledge, skills, mandate and jurisdictional responsibilities of key disciplines. It is important for physicians, nurses, and other health care providers to provide adequate information on SBS to the parents and other caregivers. There is also a need for shared commitment and coordination among health, child welfare, police, social services, justice and education professionals, as well as the community at large. Shaking a child violently is considered as child abuse and a criminal assault. For this purpose, several states in USA have passed bills and in most of these places the legal implications of SBS involve child welfare and criminal investigations. These
Thursday, September 12, 2019
Accouting - Speech or Presentation Example The formula to calculate dividend yield ratio is dividends per share divided by market price per share. Dividend yield ratio = $1.50 / $60 = 2.5%. d) The price-earnings ratio is an index that shows whether a stock is relatively cheap or expensive in relation to its earnings. The formula to calculate the price-earnings ratio is market price per share / EPS. Price-earnings ratio = 60 / 7.8 = 7.69. The book value per share is lower than the market value per share by $20. This figure does not necessarily reflect that the stocks of the company are selling at a bargain price. The book value per share reflects the amount that would be distributed to investors if all assets were sold at their balance sheet values after paying off the creditors. a) The current ratio is calculated dividing current assets by current debt. Current ratio = 1,120,000 / 600,000 = 1.87. The current ratio shows the ability of a company to pay off its current debt. A general rule for the current ratio is that if the ratio is above 1.0 it is good. The company is in a good position to pay off its current debt. The current ratio of the firm is below the industry average of 2.1. b) The quick acid ratio is another solvency metric. It is calculated similarly to current ratio with the exception that inventory is deducted from the numerator. Quick acid ratio = (1,120,000 Ã¢â¬â 610,000) / 600000 = 0.85. The quick acid ratio of the company is below the industry average of 1.2. e) The debt to equity ratio is a measure of the amount of assets being provided by creditors for each dollar of assets being provided by the stockholders (Garrison, et. al.). The ratio is calculated by the following formula: total liabilities / total equity. The purpose of the ratio analysis performed was to determine whether Stephens Company qualifies for a $500,000 loan. The broad profitability of the company is a little lower than the