Thursday, January 24, 2019


According to Hector Avalos, religions might urge peace, love, and harmony, but establishing a textual canon or sacred state of affairs which only close to have privileged access to alike establishes an unreal scarcity which causes people to fight. This is the intent of spectral leaders, but its an inevitable ontogeny of their actions and we can see this occurring in the context of Islam with its holy localizes and cities Mecca, Medina, the Dome of the Rock, Hebron, and so on. Each city is holy to Islamics, but while Muslims focus on what they regard as the appointed aspects, they cannot pretend that the negative aspects dont exist.Moreover, even the positive aspects can be criticized as often inaccurate. The holiness of each berth is associated with violence against other religions or against other Muslims and their importance has been as drug-addicted on politics as religion, a sign of the degree to which policy-making ideologies and parties make use of the religious concept of holiness to further their bear agendas. Mecca Islams holiest aim, Mecca, is where Muhammad was born. During his exile in Medina, Muhammad had his followers pray in the direction of Mecca alternatively of Jerusalem which was the original orientation site.Going on a pilgrimage to Mecca at least once in a persons life is one of the fiver Pillars of Islam. Mecca is unsympathetic to non-Muslims because of a revelation Muhammad allegedly received from God, but some outsiders have entered while dis feigningd as Muslims. Even before Muhammad, Mecca was a pilgrimage site for pleasure seeker polytheists and some argue that the Muslim physical exertion of pilgrimage was borrowed from those ancient rituals. Some scholars argue that because Jews and Christians rejected Muhammads message, ancient pagan practices had to be incorporated into Islam in order to more easily enrapture the allegiance of local polytheists.Christianity did much the same by dint ofout Europe in order to convert pagans there. Located in the courtyard of the Great Mosque in Mecca is a windowless cube known as the Kaaba, believed by Muslims to have been reinforced by the prophet Abraham In the southeastern corner of the Kaaba is the Black Stone, an disapprove which Muslims believe was given to Abraham by the angel Gabriel. Reports of local pagans worshipping gods in the stamp of stones go back centuries and Muhammad probably incorporated this practice through the Kabaa itself.Pagan rituals were thence re-told through the lives of biblical characters and so that local practices could continue under the guise of Muslim tradition. Medina Medina is where Muhammad was exiled after he found little support for his ideas in his home city of Mecca, making it the second holiest site in Islam. in that location was a large Jewish community in Medina which Muhammad had hoped to convert, but his disappointment eventually led him to banish, enslave, or kill every Jew in the area. The forepart of non-believers was at outset an affront to Muhammads claims that his religion superseded theirs later, it was an affront to the holiness of the place.Medina was excessively the capital of the Muslim empire until 661 when it was moved to Damascus. Despite its religious status, this personnel casualty of governmental power caused the city to decline precipitously and it had little act upon during the Middle Ages. Medinas modern rise to prominence was again due to politics, not religion after Britain occupied Egypt, the Ottoman occupiers of the region funneled communications through Medina, transforming it into a major transportation and communication center. Thus the importance, decline, and growth of Medina was forever dependent upon the political situation, not on religion or religious beliefs.Dome of the Rock The Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem is a Muslim shrine which stands where the firstborn Jewish temple is believed to have stood, where Abraham tried to apply his son t o God, and where Muhammad ascended into heaven in order to receive Gods commandments. For Muslims this is the third holiest site for pilgrimage, after Mecca and Medina. It may be the oldest surviving example of early Islamic architecture and is modeled after the Christian Church of the Holy Sepulchre, situated nearby. Control of the site is a hotly contested issue for Muslims and Jews.Many pricey Jews would like to see the mosques torn down and the Temple reconstructed in their place, but this would destroy one of the holiest sites of Islam and lead to a religious contend of unprecedented proportions. True Believers have gathered together in a variety of Third Temple societies in active preparation, even dismission so far as to prepare the precise clothing, coinage, and sacrificial implements requisite for use in a rebuilt Temple. Stories have spread among Muslims that the creation of Israel was the first step in an apocalyptic process which will culminate in the total triumph of Islam over all the world.The Dome of the Rock is thus one of the best examples of Avalos argument about how religions create false scarcities which pass on violence. There are no natural resources on this site which earth might be expected to fight over no oil, water, gold, etcetera Instead, people are willing to launch an apocalyptic war scarcely because they all believe that the site is holy to them and, therefore, that only they should be allowed to restrainer and build upon it. Hebron The city of Hebron is holy for both Muslims and Jews because it contains the Cave of the Patriarchs, supposedly a tomb for Abraham and his family.During the Six Day War of June, 1967, Israel seized Hebron along with the rest of the western Bank. After this war, hundreds of Israelis settled in the area, creating conflict with thousands of Palestinian neighbors. Because of this, Hebron has become a symbol of Israeli-Palestinian hostilities and thus of interreligious strife, suspicion, and violence. Its not possible for both Jews and Muslims to have soap control of Hebron and neither group is willing to share control. Its only because of the pressure of both that the city is holy that they fight over it at all, though.Mashhad Mashhhad, Iran, is the site for the burial places and shrines for all twelve of the imams revered by the Twelver Shia Muslims. These holy men, believed to be a source of sanctity, are all martyrs because they were murdered, poisoned, or otherwise persecuted. It wasnt Christians or Jews who did this, though, but other Muslims. These shrines to the early imams are treated by Shia Muslims right away as religious symbols, but if anything they are symbols for the ability of religion, including Islam, to encourage violence, brutality, and constituent among believers. QomQom, Iran, is an important pilgrimage site for the Shia because of the burial sites of numerous shahs. The Borujerdi mosque is opened and closed each day by government guards who p raise Irans Islamic government. It is also the site of Shia theology training and thus also of Shia political activism. When the Ayatollah Khomeini returned to Iran from exile, his first stop was Qom. The city is thus as much a political shrine as it is a religious one, a monument to tyrannic politics and the authoritarian religion which provides politics with existential justification. >

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