Tuesday, May 28, 2019
What Factors Explain the Golden Age of the Dutch Republic? :: World History
This essay will discuss Dutch excellence in trade, art and literature singly to discern the factors which explain the high standards of distinction these fields achieved during the Golden Age of the Dutch Republic.Although the smallest of the European powers in terms of territory, population, and natural resources, for 150 years the Dutch Republic dominated European trade with approximately half of the worlds total stock of seagoing ships at the zenith of its power. How did such an insignificant extract rise so rapidly, becoming according to contemporary observer Sir William Temple the envy of some, the fear of others and the wonder of all their neighbours? Shifting commercial patterns since the sixteenth atomic number 6 had seen the rise of a truly global economy. As the quality of ships improved, skippers travelled further distances with cargo, making arrival times and availability of goods unpredictable. A centrally regain market where goods could be bought and sold at consta nt prices was needed. Geographical factors made the Dutch Republic ideal for this role, situated at the intersection of Northern waterways connecting the Atlantic, Baltic and the Rhine. This position had grown in significance since the Mediterraneans function as pivot of international trade had diminished. Within the country, the Republics all-encompassing waterways, river fleets and timber depots were well suited to a boom. The Republic had already established a leadership in bulk transportation, a firm foundation which could be built upon. Since the 1590s, the moedernegotie or mother trade moved huge quantities of goods such as lumber, fish and grain in large volume in cheap, unprejudiced ships. However, real wealth lay in the rich trades of spices, silver and other luxury goods imported from the East Indies, Africa and the Americas. This trade was previously dominated by the Hanseatic states and England, besides the Dutch Republics ease of access to the Iberian market and col onial goods enabled it to overtake the England Muscovy trade by 1600. In 1602, the Dutch East Indies confederation or VOC was founded, followed by the Dutch West Indies Company nineteen years later. Throughout the 1630s, training posts were established in Sri Lanka and New Guinea.Several important external factors allowed the establishment of this formidable trade empire at the dawn of the seventeenth century. The first of these was the inflow of immigrants from the Southern Netherlands and other European states in the late 16th and seventeenth centuries. Within the Dutch Republic, between 100,000 and 15,0000 refugees fled from the Spanish forces, settling mainly in Holland or Zeelands towns.