Friday, June 7, 2019

Phonetics Case Essay Example for Free

Ph iodintics Case EssayIntroductionThe aim of this thesis is to give a systematic description of nighwhat aspects of face morphophonemic. The thesis falls into 2 chaptersThe maiden chapter, which is an introduction, presents a short sketch of the title, the problem, the purpose of the chew over,phonological governs. The second chapter is devoted to some of the basic concepts required in the study of morphophonemic. It starts with various definitions of morpheme, allomorph.The thesis ends with some conclusions, a list of bibliography. Morphophonemic Analysis designates the analytic procedures whereby paradigms with phonological alternations argon reduced to central representations and phonological convenings. The edge morphophonemic compend has a now obscure origin. In the 1940s and 1950s, m any phonologists counterfeited with a conjecture in which (roughly) all neutralizing rules were assumed to apply sooner all allophonic rules. This in effect divided the phonology into two components a neutralizing component, whose units were called morphophonemes, and a non-neutralizing component, which dealt with phonemes and allophones. This bifurcated-phonology theory is widely considered untenable today, butmorphophonemics remains a useful term for characterizing the study of neutralizing phonological rules as they apply in paradigms.When we conduct morphophonemic analysis, we seek to ramp up a connection mingled with entropy and theory. The theory in question is that morphemes are stored in the lexicon in an invariant phonemic habitus, are strung together by morphological and syntactic rules, and are indeed converted to their surface forms by a sequence of phonological rules (often neutralizing), applied in a particular decree. The purpose of morphophonemic analysis is to let out a set of underlying forms and enjoin rules that are consistent with the selective information and the payoff is that seemingly complex patterns are often reduced to si mplicity.Morphophonemic analysis whitethorn be contrasted with phonemic analysis. Phonemic analysis is a more limited form of phonological analysis that seeks only to discover the non-neutralizing (allophonic) rules of the phonology. In phonemic analysis, only the distribution and similarity of the phones is examined. Therefore, the data need not be grouped in paradigms, but need only comprise a sufficiently large and representative set of speech. Like phonemic analysis, morphophonemic analysis can be pursued with a systematic method.The main purpose of my work consists in making exact definition of a phoneme and allophone and be able to distinguish them. To understand what is morphophonemic? Problems of my work are morphophonemic and morphophonological rules, types of morphophonological changes, relation between phonology and morphophonology, closing off forms, rule ordering, morphophonology and orthography.Morphophonology (also morphophonemics, morphonology) is a branch of lingui stics which studies the interaction between morphological and phonological or phonetic processes. Its chief focus is the start changes that larn place in morphemes (minimal meaningful units) when they combine to form words. Morphophonological analysis often involves an attempt to give a series of formal rules that successfully previse the regular sound changes occurring in the morphemes of a given phraseology. Such a series of rulesconverts a theoretical underlying representation into a surface form that is actually heard. The units of which the underlying representations of morphemes are composed are sometimes called morphophonemes. The surface form puddled by the morphophonological rules whitethorn consist of phonemes (which are then compositors case to universal phonological rules to produce speech sounds or phones), or else the morphophonological analysis may bypass the phoneme stage and produce the phones itself. Morphophonemes and morphophonological rulesWhen morphemes combine, they influence each others sound structure (whether examine at a phonetic or phonemic level), resulting in antithetical variant pronunciations for the same morpheme. Morphophonology attempts to analyze these processes. A languages morphophonological structure is slackly described with a series of rules which, ideally, can predict every morphophonological alternation that final payments place in the language. An example of a morphophonological alternation in incline is provided by the plural morpheme, written as -s or -es. Its pronunciation alternates between s, z, and z, as in cats, dogs, and horses respectively. A purely phonological analysis would most likely assign to these three endings the phonemic representations /s/, /z/, /z/.On a morphophonological level, however, they may all be considered to be forms of the underlying object //z//, which is a morphophoneme. The different forms it takes are dependent on the segment at the end of the morpheme to which it attach es these dependencies are described by morphophonological rules. (The behaviour of the slope past tense ending -ed is similar it can be pronounced t, d or d, as in hoped, bobbed and added.) Note that the plural suffix -s can also influence the form taken by the preceding morpheme, as in the case of the words leaf and knife, which end with f in the singular, but pay off v in the plural (leaves, knives).On a morphophonological level these morphemes may be canvass as ending in a morphophoneme //F//, which becomes voiced when a voiced consonant (in this case the //z// of the plural ending) is attached to it. This rule may be written imageically as /F/ - voice / __ voice. In the International Phonetic Alphabet, pipes ( ) are often used to indicate a morphophonemic quite a than phonemic representation. another(prenominal) common convention is double slashes (// //), asabove, implying that the transcription is more phonemic than simply phonemic. Other conventions sometimes seen are double pipes ( ) and curling brackets ( ). Types of morphophonological changesInflected and agglutinating languages may own extremely complicated systems of morphophonemics. Examples of complex morphophonological systems entangle 1. Sandhi, the phenomenon behind the English examples of plural and past tense above, is found in to the highest degree all languages to some degree. Even Mandarin, which is sometimes said to display no morphology, nonetheless displays tone sandhi, a morphophonemic alternation. 2. Consonant gradation, found in some Uralic languages such as Finnish, Estonian, Northern Smi, and Nganasan. 3. Vowel harmony, which occurs in varying degrees in languages all around the world, notably Turkic languages. 3. Ablaut, found in English and other Germanic languages. Ablaut is the phenomenon wherein stem vowels change form depending on context, as in English sing, sang, sung. Relation between phonology and morphophonologyUntil the 1950s, many phonologists assumed that neutralizing rules generally applied before allophonic rules. Thus phonological analysis was split into two parts a morphophonological part, where neutralizing rules were comeed to derive phonemes from morphophonemes and a purely phonological part, where phones were derived from the phonemes. Since the 1960s (in particular with the work of the generative school, such as Chomsky and Halles The Sound Pattern of English) many linguists have moved away from making such a split, instead regarding the surface phones as being derived from the underlying morphophonemes (which may be referred to apply various spoken communication) through a single system of (morpho)phonological rules.The purpose of both phonemic and morphophonemic analysis is to produce simpler underlying descriptions for what appear on the surface to be complicated patterns. In purely phonemic analysis the data is just a set of words in a language, while for the purposes of morphophonemic analysis the words must be consi dered in grammatical paradigms to take account of the underlying morphemes. It is postulated that morphemes are recorded in the speakers lexicon in an invariant (morphophonemic) form, which, in a given environment, is converted by rules into a surface form. The psychoanalyst attemptsto present as completely as possible a system of underlying units (morphophonemes) and a series of rules that act on them, so as to produce surface forms consistent with the linguistic data.Isolation formsThe isolation form of a morpheme is the form in which that morpheme appears in isolation (when not subject to the effects of any other morpheme). In the case of a bound morpheme, such as the English past tense ending -ed, it will generally not be possible to identify an isolation form, since such a morpheme does not occur in isolation. It is often reasonable to assume that the isolation form of a morpheme provides its underlying representation. For example, in some American English, plant is pronounced plnt, while planting is pln, where the morpheme plant- appears in the form pln. Here the underlying form can be assumed to be //plnt//, corresponding to the isolation form, since rules can be set up to derive the reduced form pln from this (while it would be difficult or insufferable to set up rules that would derive the isolation form plnt from an underlying //pln//).This is not always the case, however sometimes the isolation form itself is subject to neutralisation that does not apply to some other instances of the morpheme. For example, the French word petit (small) is pronounced in isolation without the final t sound, although in certain derived forms (such as the feminine petite) the t is heard. If the isolation form were adopted as the underlying form, the information that there is a final t would be lost, and it would be hard to explain the appearance of the t in the inflected forms.Rule orderingMorphophonological rules are generally considered to apply in a set order. Thi s means that the application of one rule may sometimes either prevent or enable the application of another rule provided the rules are appropriately ordered. If the ordering of two rules is such that the application of the first rule can have the effect of making it possible to apply the second, then the rules are said to be in feeding order. For example, if a language has an apocope rule (A) which deletes a final vowel, and a cluster reduction rule (CR) that reduces a final consonant cluster, then the rules are in feeding order if A precedes CR, since the application of A can enable application of CR (for example, a word ending /-rpa/ is not itself subjectto CR, since the consonant cluster is not final, but if A is applied to it first, leaving /-rp/, then CR can apply). Here rule A is said to feed rule CR. If the rules are ordered such as to avoid possible feeding (in this case, if CR applies before A) then they are said to be in counter-feeding order. On the other hand, if rules a re ordered such that the application of the first rule can have the effect of preventing application of the second, then the rules are said to be in bleed order.For example, if a language has an epenthesis rule (E) that inserts a /w/ before certain vowels, and a vowel deletion rule (D) that deletes one of two consecutive vowels, then the rules are in bleeding order if E precedes D, since the application of E can prevent application of D (for example, a word containing /-iu-/ would be subject to D, but if E is applied to it first, leaving /-iwu-/, then D can no eagle-eyeder apply). Here rule E is said to bleed rule D. If the rules are ordered such as to avoid possible bleeding (in this case, if D applies before E) then they are said to be in counter-bleeding order. The terminology of feeding and bleeding is also applied to other linguistic rules, such as those of historical sound changes.Morphophonology and orthographyThe principle behind alphabetic make-up systems is that the let ters (graphemes) represent phonemes. However in many orthographies based on such systems the correspondences between graphemes and phonemes are not exact, and it is sometimes the case that certain spellings unwrap represent a words morphophonological structure rather than the purely phonological. An example of this is that the English plural morpheme is written -s regardless of whether it is pronounced as /s/ or /z/ we write cats and dogs, not dogz. The above example involves active morphology (inflection), and morphophonemic spellings are common in this context in many languages. Another type of spelling that can be described as morphophonemic is the kind that reflects the etymology of words. Such spellings are particularly common in English examples include science /sa/ vs. unconscious //, prejudice /pr/ vs. prequel /pri/, sign /san/ signature /sn/, nation /ne/ vs. nationalism /n/, and special /sp/ vs. species /spi/.Conclusions match to this chapterMorphophonology (also morphoph onemics, morphonology) is a branch of linguistics which studies 1. The phonological structure of morphemes.2. The combinatory phonic modifications of morphemes which happen when they are combined. 3. The alternative series which serve a morphological function. Examples of a morphophonological alternatives in English include these distinctions Plurals -es and -s, as in bus, buses, vs. bun, buns. Plural of -f is -ves, as in leaf, leaves.Different pronunciations for the past tense marker -ed.English, having lost its inflection, does not have much morphophonology. Inflected and agglutinating languages may have extremely complicated systems, e.g., consonant gradation. A morphophonemic rule has the form of a phonological rule, but is curtail to a particular morphological environment. Morphophonemic rules are sensitive to their environment, unlike phonological rules. Whenever morphological information is required to specify the environment for an allophonic rule, the rule is morphophonemi c. The prefix /in-/ has the allomorphs il and ir/in-/ + responsible irresponsible/in-/ + logical illogicalTherefore, there must be a morphophonemic rule which determines the allomorphs il and ir of the prefix /in-/. The purpose of both phonemic and morphophonemic analysis is to produce simpler underlying descriptions for what appear on the surface to be complicated patterns. When morphemes are clustered or grouped in words than changes in the phonological structures of these words occur. Such changes are called morphophonemic changes. Assuming that we allow phonological rules to apply in sequence, we can cycle through them using the output of the first rule as the input to the second. For many cases in the data set, at most one phonological rule introduces a geomorphologic change. But in roll, tail, or comb we see a single derivation that involves both rules. Furthermore, such cases are not rare in English. whatever word that begins with a voiceless stop and contains a vowel that precedes a voiced consonant will require the application of both rules. We use cog as an illustrative exampleAllophoneCentral to the concept of the phoneme is the idea that it may be pronounced in many different ways. In English (BBC pronunciation) we take it for granted that the r sounds in ray and tray are the same sound (i.e. the same phoneme), but in reality the two sounds are very different the r in ray is voiced and non-fricative, while the r sound in tray is voiceless and fricative. In phonemic transcription we use the same symbol r for both, but we know that the allophones of r include the voiced nonfricative sound and the voiceless fricative one . In theory a phoneme can have an infinite number of allophones, but in practice for descriptive purposes we tend to concentrate on a small number that occur most regularly.PhonemeThis is the thoroughgoing unit of phonology, which has been defined and used in many different ways. Virtually all theories of phonology hold that spok en language can be disordered down into a string of sound units (phonemes), and that each language has a small, relatively fixed set of these phonemes. Most phonemes can be put into groups for example, in English we can identify a group of plosive phonemes p, t, k, b, d a group of voiceless fricatives f, , s, , h, and so on. An important question in phoneme theory is how the analyst can establish what the phonemes of a language are. The most widely accepted view is that phonemes are contrastive and one must find cases where the fight between two words is dependent on the difference between two phonemes for example, we can prove that the difference between pin and pan depends on the vowel and that i and are different phonemes.Pairs of words that differ in just one phoneme are known as minimal pairs. We can establish the same fact about p and b by citing pin and bin. Of course, you can only start doing commutation tests like this when you have a provisional list of possible phonemes to test, so some basic phonetic analysis must precede this stage. Other fundamental concepts used in phonemic analysis of this sort are complementary distribution, free variation, distinctive feature and allophone. Different analyses of a language are possible in the case of English some phonologists claim that there are only six vowel phonemes, others that there are twenty or more (it depends on whether you count diphthongs and long vowels as single phonemes or as combinations of two phonemes). It used to be said that learning thepronunciation of a language depended on learning the somebody phonemes of the language, but this building-block view of pronunciation is looked on nowadays as an unhelpful oversimplification.PhonemicsWhen the importance of the phoneme became widely accepted, in the 1930s and 40s, many attempts were made to develop scientific ways of establishing the phonemes of a language and listing each phonemes allophones this was known as phonemics. Nowadays little im portance is given to this type of analysis, and it is considered a minor branch of phonology, except for the practical purpose of devising writing systems for previously unwritten languages.ConclusionAn allophone is a phonetic variant of a phoneme in a particular language.A phoneme is the smallest contrastive unit in the sound system of a language.A phone is one of many possible sounds in the languages of the world.Phonemics a branch of linguistic analysis involving the study of phonemes, the structure of a language in terms of phonemes.General conclusionMorphophonemics, in linguistics, study of the relationship between morphology and phonology. Morphophonemics involves an investigation of the phonological variations within morphemes, usually marking different grammatical functions e.g., the vowel changes in sleep and slept, bind and bound, useless and vanity, and the consonant alternations in knife and knives, loaf and loaves.The ways in which the morphemes of a language are vario usly represented by phonemic shapes can be regarded as a kind of code. This code is the morphophonemic system of the language. The morphophonemics of English is never so simple. There are always many instances of two or more morphemes represented by the same phonemic shape, and there are always cases in which a single morpheme is represented now by one phonemic shape, now by another. Therefore the morphophonemics of English is never trivial.Literature1. Hayes, Bruce (2009). Morphophonemic Analysis Introductory Phonology,pp. 161185. Blackwell. 2. R. Jakobson, C. G. Fant, and M. Halle, Preliminaries to Speech Analysis, Fundamentals of Language (Mouton and Company, The Hague, 1956). 3. P. Roach (2004). English Phonetics and Phonology, Cambridge. 4. www.wikipedia.ru5. www.sil.org6. www.msu.edu

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