Friday, March 29, 2019
Benefits of Flexitime in the Public Sector
Benefits of Flexi duration in the Public SectorFlexible blending magazine is a new style of act upon condition which has its root from the German word Gleitzeit which means sliding period. It may be defined as a vari satisfactory hammer entry which eachows persons to fulfill their obligations outside a rigid frame hold of time. Flexitime eachows an employee to choose the time when he will step to the fore ladder and when he will finish but with a totality time when everybody moldiness be present which is normally a closure of four to sestet hours in the middle of the traditional break docket(Rubin,1979).Flexitime has been raw materialally categorized into three types namely, gliding or variable time where the employees tramp change their arriver and de bring outure time whenever they want as broad as they argon present for a core period of time. Flextour too allows workers to change their arrival or departure time but they moldiness specify in advance when they wi ll arrive and depart for a period of one or two weeks. Here alike there is a core period to loom. A third type of flexitime is a completely compromising one where there is no core period. Employees ignore come and depart as long as a reach out a set number of hours per week or per month(Estes,1990).A basic model of flexitime may be summarized as belowA great dealwidth which is the ahead of time time at which employees start work up to the latest polish time (e.g. 6.00 am to 6.30 p.m).A core time within which all employees be present at work (e.g. 10.00 to 12.00 a.m and 2.00 to 4.00 p.m). In fact it is centering who usually set the core time whereas the flexile time is contumacious by the employee based upon common consent (Nadler et al,2010).A flexible band of hours during which the employees might vary the time of starting work in the morning time and/or the time of quitting work in the afternoon .Banking, which permits the employees to accumulate superabundance or before longage of hours worked.The basis of flexitime in the Public Sector has been a subject of rangy debate since a very long time. respective(a) studies have been done on this subject in many a(prenominal) another(prenominal) countries. Nowadays, many organizations are in a state of change and given the speedy development in the business purlieu worldwide, the requirement for managing employees effectively was never as signifi houset as it is today. Moreover, increased globalization, technological evolution, new laws and regulations, ever-changing economic and social environment are all public press organizations to be more than competitive and finding recrudesce ways of collaborating and ensuring a symphonic relation amid vigilance and employees. Trust has to be built in corporate governance, in business strategies and in the future success of work and too in the skills, abilities and desires of the workforce.The aim of this paper is to debate on the total con cept of flexitime, also defined in some papers as flexible work sights. The objectives of the research are summarized as followsWhy the destiny for flexitimeTo show the impact of flexitime in the life of civil servantsTo show whether flexitime reduces mental strain and increases joke gaiety and supply moraleTo show if it gives rise to more efficient work practices by improving productiveness and performance test to analyse whether flexitime assistants workers to reconcile work with family responsibilitiesWhether flexitime dish ups in trim lateness and absenteeismWhether flextime contributes in reducing the need for overtimeTo demonstrate whether flexitime enhances motivation of employees at their workplace resolve to analyse the concept from both a prudence and employee point of catch up withSeek to analyse its advantages and disadvantages both to management and to employeesThe information has been extracted both from the mystic and public orbits.Background and overview Different studies have been carried out in many countries on the concept of flexitime and each one has come up with its receive conclusions. During the 1960s there was a labour shortage in Germany. ChristelKraemerer so came up with the concept of flexitime to encourage housewives and mothers to join the labour market to plow this particular problem. Thus the strict rule of standard work schedule no longer exists where more than 75% of the workforce are for flexible workings schedule( Kattenbach et al., 2010). By 1972 the United States had started flexitime on a pilot basis(Rubin,1979). In 2003 the UK government passed a legislation giving the right to employees having children infra six or having disabled children under eighteen, to request a flexible work arrangement and by April 2007 the law included this facility to carers of adults(http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flextime). William R. Estes had come up with a meta-analysis of the effects of flexitime over a large number of circ umstances. He made use of results of previous research articles to demonstrate the effects of flexitime on absenteeism, productivity, overtime cost, leisure/family time, job satisfaction, role conflict, turnover, transport problems, and the desire to encompass the use of flexitime. The meta analysis concluded that it was easier to implement flexitime in small organizations than in bigger ones. This is mainly imputable to the complexity of larger organizations and to the number of employees compared to small organizations. It also showed that flexitime increases job satisfaction, reduces absenteeism and hollos on leaves entitlement, changed employee behavior. But, on the other arrive at it did not have big effect on productivity.Flexitime is also sensed as being a modern rotating shaft for managing re semens more effectively, efficiently and economically(Khamkaya and Sloan,2009). In todays competitive world people is seen to be one of the secern resources which can bring suc cess to an organization(wickramasinghe and Jayabandhu, 2007). In this context, the effective management of human resources is an important feature in the adoption of flexitime in an organization.A study on the implementation of flexitime in the Scottish Local Authorities showed reluctance on the part of employees due to cultural change, in fitted support from the current organizational policy. Changing a long lasting culture in an organization is perhaps one of the most hard task an organization and management can face. Although there are many benefits pertaining to the adoption of flextime, the success obtained in one organization does not guarantee that it will work in other organisations also. Management, employers science, employees perception, the working environment will play a big role and will vary from one organization to the other.Flexitime was introduced in an IT sector in Sri Lanka which put more emphasis on people management. stiff human resource management contrib ute highly to the realization of pileus growth and technological expansion. Some studies have sh take that female workers are more in favour of flexitime as it helps them to coordinate more effectively their work and their private life commitments. When both parents are working in a family there is a greater need for flexitime as it enables them to properly hide their family responsibilities and any other commitments they may have for example, the pursuance of higher studies. Employees were all in favour of flexitime and would bid to have it in all workplaces. Employers were able to have the trust of employees, their full commitment and increase their potential. Welch and Gordon(1980) had found that tractability encouraged employees to remain with the same employer for longer. However, the sri Lankan study revealed that this was not necessarily the case. It must be emphasized that the Sri Lankan study is more recent and was conducted twenty septette years later where many chang es have occurred in the working environment and conditions. Similarly concerning the gender issue other studies suggested that female workers were more in favour of flexitime, the findings in the Sri Lankan context revealed that there were no significant differences surrounded by males and females perceptions. Management systems are modernizing and there is a need to develop strategies like flexitime in a globally competitive environment(Wickramasinghe, Jayabandu (2007)).Flexitime has also been implemented passim the Queensland public sector since 1996. But this study revealed that flexitime created much(prenominal) frustrations among employees. This was mainly due to the arising of long working hours and inadequate time off. Employees were allowed to bank their free hours worked up to a maximum of thirty hours. Some employees accumulated up to 800 excess hours and could not take it as there was a significant privation of faculty. But there were other areas in the same organiz ation where staff were able to take timeoff due to to the conscious decisions of managers. Also flexitime caused a descend in socialization in the workplace as colleagues could not conform to their friends as each had his own time of coming and going and winning breaks. on that point was also lack of proper regulations to monitor the system. The study showed the greatness of regulation and good management of the system to increase employee welfare. Although there are great benefits from flexitime it can also have detrimental effects if it is not properly managed(http//www.freepatentsonline.com).A study on flexitime in the National health Services (NHS) in UK showed that it brought much happiness to employees. It was studied as an grammatical construction of Improving Working Lives (IWL) standard in an NHS Acute Trust. Over a third of the employees considered the implementation of flexitime as a give and take approach. They felt up that they have to and they wanted to perform break down in return of the advantages they got from the flexible arrangements. They perceived much happiness as they felt that they were well set and valued and that there was a reduction of stress in their daily lives. However the study had a limited conception. It laid emphasis on only one aspect, that is IWL (Atkinson and Hall, 2011). Sanchez et al.,(2007) have said Flexibility is a source of competitive advantage. Enhancing flexibility may be costly in the short run, but it gets easier over time. Firms become more flexible because their managers emphasise the vastness of flexibility and because they practice being flexible. A self-reinforcing process then begins.The carrying into action of Flexitime in the Mauritanian public sectorThe fundament of flexitime in the Mauritian accomplished Service has been advocated since 1993 by the Pay enquiry Bureau so as to solve the problems of late arrivals in routine due to trade congestion and other family problems. In its report of 2003 the PRB has recommended that subject to the approval of the Ministry of Civil Service Affairs and Administrative Reforms and after consultation with the staff side, Ministries/Departments/Organisations should hie the introduction of flexitime where demand exist and resources permit. Flexitime would normally not be relevant to certain categories of officers due to the nature of their duties, for exampleOfficers operating on a shift system, roster basis and staggered hoursOfficers in the manual gradesOfficers in the develop forceOfficers in the education sectorA survey had also been undertaken in this context. The conclusions were that organisations which had adopted flexitime had been effective in combating excessive/regular tardiness. The absence of a computerised system of attention and additional resources required were one of the study(ip) hindrances for its application in other sectors. Lack of supervision was also an issue. Those working in teams also dont find i t fitted to their needs and it was also difficult to evaluate work performed after normal working hours in cost of productivity.Some Chief Executives have made some favourable observations. They adduce that flexitime can increase productivity, improve performance and reduce overtime costs if used judiciously and effectively. It can also increase efficiency and improve quality of life of employees. It can also combat lateness and prevent hatred of leave by officers and is a good management tool (PRB report 2008).The report has further laid emphasis on the responsibility of management and employees in the public sector.Management ResponsibilitiesThe PRB has spelt out the responsibilities of management on the application of flexitime as follows(a) introduction of irregular workweek whereby employees have early arrival times and late departure times(b) ensuring that there is adequate office coverage during official hours and that customer service and work requirements are not adver sely affected by employee participation in alternate work schedules(c) ensuring that employee participation in alternative work schedules is equitable and uniform across work units within the organization(d)complying with all procedural requirements on authentication of time and attendance and work schedules(e) communicating and seeking plebeian agreement with the employees on work schedules(f) planning office workflow to keep in line that there is productive work for employees to perform(g) suspending an employees alternative work schedule when workload requirements, temporary duty, or training preclude participation(h) communicate employees as soon as practicable of any modifications in work schedule(i) making a concerted effort to schedule office meetings during core hours and(j) to ensure monitoring and supervision in establishing work hours, negative abuses and take corrective measures if abuses occur.Employees ResponsibilitiesThe responsibilities of the employees on the introduction of flexitime as pointed out in the PRB Report 2003 are as follows(a)complying with all procedural requirement regarding certification of time and attendance and work schedules to which they are assigned(b)communicating and seeking mutual agreement with the supervisor on work schedules and maintaining records of daily time and attendance in accordance with office procedures.Advantages of FlexitimeThere are many advantages resulting from the introduction of flexitime. And it is beneficial to employees, employers and management.The advantages of flexitime from a point of view of managementImprovement in productivityWith the implementation of flexitime it is felt that absenteeism and turnover are trim down, and job satisfaction is improved in an organisation. Flexitime is also associated with increased productivity and morale and reduced absenteeism.OvertimeThe need for overtime is not felt as employees can manage busy and slack periods. Management can also do a saving on item of overtime. Moreover, completion of lengthy work assignments can be completed without resorting to overtime .EfficiencyFlexitime can help employees to combine their work and in the flesh(predicate) responsibilities, and can help workflow to be managed more efficiently.(a) domestic matters can be dealt with in employees own time(b) details of employees time keeping is readily available( c) the existence of a scheme can act as a positive tool in recruitmentThe advantages of flexitime from employee perspectiveReduces stress and fatigueIt relieves officers of their stress and help them to wear out manage the balance amidst work commitments, family responsibilities and lifestyle choices to the advantages of the services. It helps employees to emend cope with both the work and the household and child care responsibilities. It also makes travelling easier out of peak hours.Greater staff morale and job satisfactionFlexitime promotes happiness Employees perceive that flexible work schedule brings them satisfaction (Atkinson and Hall,2010). They are also able to vary working time gum olibanum enjoying time-autonomy which positively influence performance. This autonomy acts as motivator to job satisfaction. There is also a team spirit and morale is high.Reduces delayed arrival caused by traffic congestionFlexitime allows you to schedule your travel and time to vacate congestionMore in control of their workloads and manage a better balance between in the flesh(predicate) life and workAllows bank time ( accrued flex balance hours) to be used for leisure/ personal activities. Increased opportunity to fit other commitments and activities in with work, and make better use of their free time. Personal matters therefore can be sieve without having to take time off. Todays workforce increasingly consists of women and workers in alternative family structures much(prenominal) as single headed and dual earner families. Faced with more pressing demands from both th e workplace and home these employees often divide time between these two competing interest. Among those likely to benefit to greater workplace flexibility are prime working age women, women household heads, and employees in two earner families.Advantages from Employer PerspectiveFlexitime takes away the easy audit of who is punctual and who is not. It makes the employee accountable for his own timekeeping and makes rigid timekeeping by the supervisor unimportant.It shifts focus of management from monitoring of attendances to productivity of the employee.It racecourses to joint accountability of workers and management .Absenteeism is reduced and in many cases the need for overtime is not felt.Retention of employees who seek flexible work arrangement (Nadler et al, 2010)Workers feel more responsible to the organisation and an atmosphere of partnership between employer and employee develops.Although flexitime is the most popular way of varying daily hours it has its limitations, and is not suitable for all job roles and workplaces, and other flexible options may provide better solutions. Flexitime works best, as with all alternative working patterns, as part of a package of options available to help employees balance their work and personal lives and the organisation meet its business objectives.However, this system has brought some difficulties in the work practice.The main disadvantages resulting from flexitime arePerceived loss of management control bare(a) hours of supervision may be requiredThere is potential for abuse of the flexible work periodsGreater co-ordination of working arrangements is required to maintain coverCover is lessened due to additional time off under flexi leaveStaff who cannot be afforded flexible working hours experience acrimonyCost of implementing control systems/equipmentAdditional work for personnel/supervisory staff e.g. inputting time credits for leave and adjustments, recording of flexi leaveTo what extent the introduction of f lexitime can be successful in reality for Mauritius is stable a question of big debate. Proper planning is very important. Although the Pay Research Bureau has recommended its implementation but what has been done and what is being done is still under consideration. From the literature review it is seen that all researches which have been conducted in this landing field there are varying views from different authors. Some have brought preliminary many advantages and others have noticed many drawbacks. Some employees have derived much satisfaction while others have experienced much frustration in particular due to the long hours culture which has developed. Likewise some employers have seen major improvements in the quality of work while others are still quizzical as to the success of this strategy. Some are also fearful that it would lead to anarchy in production and that the costs of implementation would exceed the benefits. by this paper we will try to analyse a general perc eption of flexitime in the Mauritian public sector and will it be really successful in our context taking into consideration all the constraints.