Saturday, March 30, 2019

Womens Virginity And Fidelity Sociology Essay

Womens Virginity And Fidelity Sociology Essay crumbvass and ad hominem line of credit the significance of the image womens virginity and belieffulness betwixt the Qing Dynasty and Contemporary chinaw atomic come up 18, with an campaign to analyse the causes of varied attitudes and behaviours in these 2 different dates.AbstractThis require focuses on the Chinese womens worth, specially in the atomic number 18a of Virginity and Fidelity. The resemblance and tell mingled with Qing Dynasty and Contemporary china is examined, with an attempt to find out(p) what doable causes had direct to the different perspectives on womens purity.Qing is regarded as an idol of womens uprightness in the entire Chinese news report. However, it seemed that the modern spring chicken tend to cargon subtile some(prenominal)what womens virginity and faithfulness. Women seemed no longer devote their entire lives to serve their husbands and in-laws. asunder from the changes in t he regions of culture, globalization, and development, the historical progress can non be ignored as hale as governmental policiesIntroductionWith the emergence of the first sex museum for women in chinaw ar, the perception of sex has begun to attract more(prenominal) attentions of Chinese people ( china Daily, 2008). Meanwhile, the images women play over centuries gift decisively contri unlessed to the historical progress of sex. Since ancient China, women are often regarded as a property of men in the antique ball club (Jaschok and Miers, 1994). accord to Marx and Engels (1985), a patriarchal husband sees in his marital fair sex a mere instrument of production of prostitution both(prenominal) common and private (1848101). Nevertheless, accompanied by complex causes, women increasingly gain more rights and equalities in the relationship with men in contemporary China. That is, in comparison with the womens strict virtue in the old days of China, Qing Dynasty in particul ar, advanced(a) Chinese women as well as men tend to be more open and unfastened to the thinker of virginity and fidelity (Ko, Haboush and Piggott, 2003 China Daily, 2003 the States Online, 1995 Zhou, 1989).However, many have argued that the root of womens honor is still solid to transfigure in China straighta modeadays (Peoples Daily, 2003). There are two remarkable cases that emerged more slowlyly, which to a great extent explain the conflicting note lever of womens rightness in modern China. A recent report (Richburg, 2010) exhibit that there is a developing trend of hymen restoration of Chinese women, which they could return to the virgin by the surgical procedure. Similarly, a considered cheaper and easier focusing of creation a pretended virgin is pop and well taken as well as the hymen restoration surgery. According to Gu (2011), the moveimental hymen is appeared as a little piece of semi-transparent tissue that you dumbfound this into the vagina, itll dis solve and expand. Have sex in about 20 to 30 minutes, and youll bleed.As a modern Chinese woman, the movement of womens right draws my attention. I am particularly interested in the area of womens uprightness, which on unrivaled hand is assumed to have a great progress in contrast to Qing dynasty. In regard to the factors that had brought to this evolution, it is hypothesized that apart from the ideological change of the significance of womens worthiness, several effects such(prenominal) as the culture of engineering science, governmental policies, education, globalization, and media have likewise led to the different attitudes and behaviours during these two different eras and on an new(prenominal)(prenominal) hand, it is believed that to a certain extent, the attitudes towards womens chastity in Qing dynasty have cushi wholenessd on modern China.As a consequence, I will focus on the comparison of the significance of the concept of womens virginity and fidelity in Qing Dynast y and Contemporary China, primary(prenominal)ly by looking at the two stoppages of women pre- wedlock and post-marriage. Moreover, several major causes of different attitudes and behaviours in these two different eras will likewise be discussed respectively. collectible to the limitation of time and source, and the sensitivity of the research topic, the investigation is conducted inside the university campus. intravenous feeding groups will be studied in sight to see the differences between different genders and generations UNNC girls, UNNC boys, their mothers, and their fathers. In addition, the research of Qing dynasty will be taken home base mostly in the analyze of literatures.Literature ReviewThe literature review will take the progress of the significance of the concept of womens chastity as a whole and continuing process. Thus, not whole Qing dynasty and Contemporary China will be examined, the period (1900-2000) between Qing dynasty and Contemporary China is as w ell important due to the fact that it had vital contributions to the development of womens right, which eventually led to the understanding of womens chastity in pre move China. The costing reviews will be dressed generally check to the chronological sequence, and mainly focus on the Qing and the Republican China due to the limited recent researches on upstart Chinese womens chastity.2.1 Qing DynastyThe traditional concept of chastity is tightly linked to the ideology of patriarchy. As a property of men in the patriarchal golf club, womens comfort was merely to breed the progeny and to satisfy men in sexuality. In order to assure the purity of the blood, the strict demand on chastity was therefore emerged. The traditional chastity devoted itself to two sections virgin before marriage, and be faithful to unrivaled and only(a)s husband unto death later on marriage (Li, 2006 Zhou, 2003).As the ideology of cultural expression and the foundation of the family system in olympi an China, Confucianism is generally the essential ideology of fe potent virtue in of late Imperial China. Particularly the concept of filiality (xiao) and fidelity (jie) have had great impacts on Qing Dynasty (Ko and Haboush and Piggott, 2003). A good example is the foot binding in Qing which according to Mackie (1996), the actual objective was to consider womens fidelity. The so-called chastity cult, a way for women to butt on their ultimate moral responsibility to the patriline into which they married, was in the position of control in Qing by honouring two female virtues purity, similar to fidelity (jie), and calvary (commonly regarded as lie). Jie mainly referred to autocratic fidelity and sexual purity to wholeness husband, in which women remained their lifelong devotion to serve the husbands family. Compared to jie, lie was more towards the unquestioning contributement to fidelity and sexual purity often end up with death or suicide by the expected requirement of self -sacrifice. That is, there were commonly merely two choices, both ending in trouble for women or even young girls at the period pain in death or suffering in life (Ko and Haboush and Piggott, 2003).However, in contrast of the widespread phenomena in early Qing which promoted both martyrdom and fidelity, the idea of fidelity seemed to be more preferable since the mid-Qing due to the expanded acceptance of filiality to husbands parents. Namely, widows were promote to fulfil their primary obligation- to serve parents-in-law and to raise the heirs (ibid). Yet, many had chosen to come up their husbands in death after accomplishing their expected duties (ibid). Theiss (2004) argues that womens chastity was often link to the human arrogance in terms of being a person. In other words, majority of them found themselves no longer being a person in which they were offended even via slight bedevilments such as flirtation. As a consequence, numerous women were recorded chastity suicide du ring Qing.That is, womens self-awareness to the concept of chastity would lead to the track of decease (ibid). Except for the initial swear which was tuging to reveal a womans ethics and humanity as a woman (Theiss, 2004 Ko and Haboush and Piggott, 2003), there were other existing outside factors that have indirectly resulted in womens chastity. On unitary hand, governmental policies such as encouragement, promotion, and penalisation were considered as the principal elements of the flourish of chaste women in Qing Dynasty (Ko and Haboush and Piggott, 2003). For example, the penalty for women who commit adultery was way severe than for men (Brown, 1952). On the other hand, societal pressure as well as education likewise impressively be activeed womens behaviours. In addition, widows talent earn particular advantages, kind respect and family honour, for instance (Ko and Haboush and Piggott, 2003).Apart from the thinkable causes that Ko and Haboush and Piggott (2003) discu ssed, Theiss (2004) further extends the range of potence motivations leading to female suicide in Qing. Firstly, familys attitude was crucial. The husbands or family members, especially in-laws, who refused or failed to report and express the outrages such as the issues of sexual harassment on the womens beone-half due to two major reasons family reputation and the threat from offenders, to a large extent led to the desperation of women. As a result, they usually turned to seek death. Furthermore, it is widely believed that fictions and dramas to some extent had driven women into the faith of supernatural revenge. For example, becoming ghosts assured them to have power to return and retaliate those who had harmed them (ibid). Moreover, by rewarding as chastity martyrs might lead to the injure of harassers family reputation (ibid).Nonetheless, it seems that the idea of womens chastity might have been over-emphasized by historians. Theiss (2004) accentuated that disrespect Qing Dy nastys well-known chastity cult, not every woman was a raw sienna of the female chastity. Plenty of women carried on adulterous personal business for years without the annoyance of their reputation. Additionally, according to her take up, most breach victims including those who suffered extreme violence or combination rapes did not commit suicide (ibid).It is argued that even though some women were volition to stay chaste after their husbands death, the facts of financial problem often brought them endure to reality and accept the remarriage. Sommer (2000) points out that the chastity was indeed unaffordable for many widows in Qing. They usually were willing to remarry quickly in the attempt of assemblage enough capital to liquidate the debts of her former husband, or even to pay his interment. In other words, a widow might trade herself with the bride-price to her advanced husband in order to settle outstanding debts before the marriage. However, it is not guaranteed tha t those widows with property which left(p) by their deceased husband could follow their willingness for being a chaste widow. In fact, they might provoke the envy of in-laws those who cherished to take over the property, and often were forced to take the staged remarriage. sooner the Xinhai Revolution, Chinese women only compete a very marginal role (Lu, 1993), due to the reason that, as Raphals (1998) claimed, They were eternally oppressed, powerless, passive, and silent. Yet, influenced by Western cultures and revolutions, a group headed by Kang Youwei, Liang Qichao, and Tan Sitong were gradually wake to the issues of gender faithfulness in the late Qing. They challenged the traditional idea of chastity and yearned to change the roles women played at the time. Their attentions were mainly focused on the campaigns of womens education and the granting immunity of marriage (Zhou, 2003 Chen, 2001).2.2 The 20th CenturyAfter Xinhai Revolution, the Confucianism was remained popula r for a short period under the support of the Northern Warlords. Similar to Qing, the behaviours of chaste women were highly honoured and promoted by the government and society, until the first meaningful womens movement in Chinese history- whitethorn Fourth Movement (Chen, 2001 Zhou, 2003). It brought up the new concept of womens chastity, which is under the condition of the true love, and the equality between the sexes (Li, 2006). Influenced by the Sex Revolution at the period in the Western foundation, intellectuals such as the famous scholars LuXun and HuShi, bad criticized the traditional view of chastity in 3 ways morality, love, and governmental policies (Chen, 2001). Firstly, LuXun (1918) claimed that it is immoral to demand womens chastity. Fidelity and martyrdom are the malformed moralities that aim to oppress and befool women, he clarified, Women and Men are equalmorality is meant for both men and womenmen cannot require women for things they dont even do. Hushi (1918) also pointed out that it is immoral to ask women to obey the chastity while men were allowed to be involved with concubines and prostitutes.Secondly, chastity could not be considered as an existence without love. As HuShi pointed out, chastity was an attitude between husbands and wives it is willingness earlier than a compulsion. Thus, he indicated that for the women who do not love their husband, usually were the victims of arranged marriage, it is not their obligation to follow the fidelity and martyrdom for their un-chaste husbands. In addition, Hushi also questioned womens behaviour of committing suicide after being raped. He argued that they did not break their chastity and dignity because the rape is occurred by force not willingness. As a result, he suggested that the society should not look down on the raped women, and respect the hardy performance of those people who married un-virgins or as un-virgins.Thirdly, it was brutal and unlike for government to promote chaste w omen. It is suggested that it is a widows interest to preserve chastity or remarry, others should not intervene (Chen, 2001). The may aside indeed to a great extent enhanced the progress of womens chastity, however, due to the limitations of Chinese history and society, the New Chastity was merely accepted by several extremist intellectuals. Although it seemed that there were minority of women got rid of the traditional chastity, the majority, and even to the entire society were still affected by the traditional chastity. During the era, the New Chastity was besides theoretical rather than particle (Chen, 2001 Li, 2006). Apart from the contributions from the open-minded scholars, globalisation, media, and mass-culture indirectly helped to induce womens chastity to a new level. For example, the widespread of the translated books which were passkeyly written by foreigners such as the Japanese author Akiko Yosano (18781942) and her work (Chen, 2001).After the May Forth Movement, more attentions were p attend to on womens liberation. Since the establishment of the Republic China, material efforts were made by Chinese government in improving womens status. by dint of legislations, more legal rights in education, marriage, and property were offered for women (Zhou, 2003).The Communist Party of China (CPC) has brought womens status to a new level after their victory in 1949, especially under the Mao regime. Mao promoted the equal rights and personal dignity between sexes, and contributed to 3 important revolutionary changes for women the Marriage Law of fifties ensured the license of marriage and divorce the Election Law of PRC of 1953 tending(p) womens right to vote as well as men and the equality of rights between men and women in terms of possessing or inherit property. It is believed that the by 1958, 16 million Chinese women were able to read, while before 1949, only 10% of women were literates. Furthermore, CPC encouraged women to participate in fo nd production, which women gained more capitals in both economic and social aspects (ibid). It is also worth mentioning that prostitution and concubine have been out of law since the CPC came to power (ibid). Consequently, with the basic conditions, Chinese Womens awakening consciousness began to play as an important role in the post-Mao era (Li, 1994299). In addition, Zhou (2003) stated that some other pre-condition of womens liberation is the financial independency of women, in which they had no longer need to fully rely on their husbands.Peoples Republic of China (PRC) gradually shifted their concentration from the outer effects to the interior effects in the respect of womens liberation. According to Zhou (200369), the Fourth World Conference on womens right was hosted by China in 1995. It includes the rights to freedom of thought, conscience religion and belief, and participation on the basis of equality in all eliminate all forms of discrimination against women promotes wom ens economic independence and ensure womens equal access to economic resources, including science and technology, vocational training, study, communication, and marts.Zhou (1989) presents the dilemmatic point for young women in the area of virginity and premarital sex in China in the late 1980s. Although the traditional views placed a high value on female virginity and deprecate premarital sex, young people now seem to have more opportunities to explore both love and sex, with the gate of the new idea of romantic love accompanied by the growing social acceptance of close interactions between women and men. According to Zhous research in 1985, which has taken place in China, most of the young men had claimed their foretaste of a virgin wife. Moreover, in rural China, nearly all the male and female peasants came to an agreement that in a love relationship, virginity was still considered to be the most valuable treasure for women. Nevertheless, the rate of premarital sexual commun ion was increasing rapidly in the present China in pique of still-existing traditional values. Several reasons can be considered for the further understanding social acceptance, education, and the support of young mens parents. It was agreed that most women have experienced the psychological pressures of a great dilemma in the selection between be a virgin and satisfying their boyfriends, but increasingly, women surrendered their resistance to the strategically steamy persuasion of their boyfriends (ibid).In terms of additionalmarital affairs which are popular nowadays in China, Thompson (1984) declared that either mere emotional or sexual involvement with someone other than ones spouse can be counted as extramarital affairs. According to Schwartz and Rutter (1998), all perspectives on gender differences in sexuality were divided into two dichotomized groups traditional versus feminist. Traditional biosocial theories who reifying the biological distinctions between men and women , attempt to justify mens promiscuous behaviours by maximizing the partners in order to inseminate the possible largest amount of women, men can somehow show their masculinity whereas women would maximize their births for the purpose of holding onto the relationship. In antonym of the traditional perspectives, it is asserted by feminist perspectives that sexuality discrepancies between the genders are socially constructed. In this point of view, similar to men, women will tend to maximize their partners if the conditions allow them (ibid).2.3 Contemporary ChinaIn Lis work (2006), she divides the present views of chastity in China into 3 categories love-ism, utilitarianism, and hedonism. Firstly, love-ism chastity, which was first brought up during the May Forth Movement, means sex with the motivation of love. A research about the reasons of premarital sex, which organised by in 2004, mainly surveyed on the contemporary Chinese youth (age 20-30), in which most of them went to the universities. The result shows that for the women who had premarital sex experiences, 31.1% of them indicated that they did it in order to enhance the love in relationships, while 24.8% and 28.6% for the purposes of curiosity and want to keep their boyfriends respectively. Other 15.5% were claimed to have other reasons. From the research it is obvious that love-ism chastity is the mainstream concept of chastity nowadays in China (Zhou, 2006).Secondly, utilitarianism chastity is usually referred to the sex for benefits, such as the social phenomenon of prostitution and concubine (ibid). Thirdly, in regard of hedonism chastity, sex is often involved with either the physical or the psychological pleasure, or both. In the contemporary society, hedonism chastity is more apt(predicate) the performance of simply physical pleasure (ibid). A recent study emphasizes that among the 40% of netizens who had experience on cyber love, nearly half of them did it on the purpose of one wickedness s tand (Xu, 2005).There are 4 main causes of the 3 categories of chastity. In the first place, the highly promotion of socialist market parsimony not only has vital contribution on the economy, but also in the area of politics, ideology, and morality. On one way, the commodity economy leads to the arousal of the sense of equality, which challenges the traditional idea of chastity, and women start to chase personal happiness. Therefore the love-ism chastity emerged. On another way, the commodity economy also arisen accompanied with hedonism and mammonism which directly link to the hedonism chastity and utilitarianism chastity (Zhou, 2006).Secondly, the rapid development of technologies, particularly the medical technology, popularizes the ways of contraception, and arrives the abortion safer and more convenient. Hence, the concerns about outlaw(a) child were reduced, and eventually provide advantages for hedonistic sex. Women seemed to be the best beneficiary, which the motherlines s once was one of the most fears to have premarital sex. As a consequence, women can pay more attention on love rather than physical elements, which to some extent promote the formation of love-ism chastity (ibid). shade aspect is probably one of the most essential factors. Although it seems that the traditional perspectives of chastity had lost its position in present society, however, in rural areas, villages in particular, it is still prevails. Moreover, the modern culture affects the modern youth in the way that they think it is their right and choice to choose their lifestyle such as cohabitation. Additionally, the Western culture such as the idea of sexual freedom and sexual liberation break the mysticism of sexuality, and attempt to achieve the sexual equality. Thus, the viewpoint of sex is changed. For the modern youth, love is not only uncanny and material, but also physical. Sex is certainly a part of love, and it aid to promote love. It is therefore nonsense to limit the sex. More importantly, it is believed by the youth that premarital sex is a positive behaviour in which it is a vital path to know a person and helping to make decisions on selecting the partner for life (ibid).Last but not least, social control gives the green light to the multiplex conceptions of chastity. For example, the Marriage Law forbids the married people cohabitate with others. Nevertheless, it is lack of the specific explanation on penalty and penalisement. Laws can be such unfastened about extramarital cohabitation, do not even have to mention about premarital cohabitation and one night stand (ibid). Furthermore, in the present days, people care less about the things which not related to them, especially in the beneficial way. In this case, the shorten of social opinion looses the social psychological stress and reduces the restraint of peoples behaviour. In addition, the morality in China has change notably on the impact of the West (ibid). A relatively recent survey based on 2063 undergraduates in 18 universities in Shanghai, shows their attitudes on premarital cohabitation 89.5% in bring believe that it is understandable if the motivation is love, and it is inappropriate to over concern other peoples issues while only 9.2% of them think that it is a moral degenerate (Xu and Wang, 2002). methodologyIn order to facilitate the research and discover more information on this area, two methodologies were utilised for different purposes. Literature analysis is use through literature reviews, aiming to find out the significance of the concept of Chinese womens chastity in Qing dynasty, since the era is too remote to be testified. In the meantime, questionnaires were set up in attempt to study the perception of womens virginity and fidelity in contemporary China. Additionally, both literature analysis and questionnaire are include in order to better understand the condition and situation of womens chastity the 20th century, mainly Republican China.Th e questionnaire is probably one of the most rough-and-ready means to testify the hypothesis which was mentioned in the introduction, and to find out some other interesting information relevant to the topic but which is not anticipated in the early stages. Regarding to the sample of research, 140 surveys were required in total which divided by genders and generations. On one hand, 70 UNNC undergraduate students, 35 females and 35 males respectively, were selected randomly and selectively, which in the way it can contain as many opinions as possible, and reducing bias with maximum efforts (Strugis, 2008). As the attention of the questionnaire is focused on Modern China, and the university students can be considered as the spielative groups of educated Chinese young people, therefore the candidates of the research are all selected among the Chinese students in UNNC. Moreover, the division of male and female represent the outside and inner factors. Apart from the self-conscious of wo men, mens attitude will affect womens understanding of chastity. Hence, it is crucial to include both of the two genders.On another hand, 70 copies of survey for parents, 35 females as well as 35 males, were sent along with the ones meant for students. It is interesting to compare and contrast the ideas on womens virginity and fidelity between the parents and their children, which they are respectively representative for the new generation that border by the global environment, high-level education, widespread mass media, and developed technology and the older generation who grew up in a period when China was relatively more closed to the outside world, and the progresses of technology and education are limited. Furthermore, the older generation may also be able to demonstrate the view of womens chastity of Republican China. Through the comparison of the two different generations can provide the possible causes that might lead to the different perspectives on womens virginity and f idelity.For the purpose of not making the candidates take too long when plectrum the questionnaire, the questionnaire is designed with two sections. There are 15 multiple choices and 3 open questions for UNNC girls, and 7 closed questions and 1 open question for UNNC boys. The mothers one is similar to their daughters while the fathers one is similar to their sons. Overall, parents ones contain two extra questions asking their age cranny and education level, which seemed unnecessary for the UNNC students since their age gap and education level are confirmed undergraduate. It is ensured that each survey takes no more than 15 minutes to finish it, without disturbing their study and work.According to Simmons (2008), pilot study is important with its function that it helps to refine the questionnaire. Thus, the initial samples were sent to several friends of mine before the actual distribution of the questionnaires, in order to examine the questionnaires critically with their objectiv e points of view. As a result, some weaknesses of the original questionnaires were found. Such as the unclear instructions and questions, and some other possible option of answers that some candidates may want to choose are left out (ibid).Qualitative method was chosen in the first place, however, with the ravel on few random UNNC students which I found on the High-Street, and one of the aunts who works in Canteen, I discovered their unwillingness of answering such sensitive questions, especially to a stranger. As an alternative, I chose questionnaire since it is less unwieldiness to answer the questions. In the beginning, I sent the questionnaires to all UNNC undergraduates with the postscript of for Chinese Students only. Nevertheless, I found little response, and within the received questionnaires, most of them abscond the sensitive questions such as are you a virgin.In order to maximise the response rate and the facticity, I managed to upload the questionnaires online, in whi ch it is exclusively anonymous and make it more comfortable and more convenient for the candidates to do the surveys. Yet, there was a misgiving about the people other than UNNC undergraduates might answer the online questionnaires and eventually affect the result. As a consequence, I locked the questionnaires with password, and sent the four addresses of online questionnaires and the password to all UNNC undergraduates via email UNNC girl, UNNC boy, their mother, and their father respectively. Also, in the email, I required the students not only to enter the relevant website, but also forward the online surveys to their parents. Additionally, the questionnaires for UNNC Undergraduates were written in English, while the ones for their parents were written in both Chinese and English.Findings and Discussions4.1 thickset of Literature AnalysisAs what the literature analysis manifested, the demand of womens virginity before marriage and the fidelity after marriage was passing strict in Qing.Due to the traditional ideology of Confucianism, women were merely one of mens properties in the patriarchal society. The popularized chastity cult played a vital role in Qing by honouring two female virtues purity (jie), and martyrdom (lie). The former one referred to the sexual purity to one husband and the dogmatic lifetime fidelity to serve the in-laws whereas, the latter one was more towards the absolute commitment to jie, which required more self-sacrifice and often end up with death. Numerous women were recorded chastity suicide during Qing. Several major causes of womens chastity will be analysed in the following paragraphs.First of all, womens chastity was noteworthy in terms of human dignity. Majority of them felt failed of being a person after being offended even through slight harassments such as flirtation. Moreover, governmental policies highly promoted the chaste women, and severely punish the considered un-chaste women such as the women accused of adultery . In addition, social pressure and education had a great contribution as well. Finally, widows could obtain particular advantages. kindly respects and family honour, for instance.Nonetheless, it is argued that the chaste suicides in Qing might have been over-emphasized. On one hand, there were a large number of women who carried on adulterous affairs without concerning their reputation. On the other hand, most rape victims did not search the path of death during the Qing era.For the women who were willing to become chaste widows after the death of their husband, financial issues often stopped them from doing so. In order to collect enough silver to liquidate the debts of the dead husband, or to finance his interment, a certain number of women accepted the remarriage. In other words, they traded themselves with the bride-price to their new husbands. Additionally, the widows with property which left by their deceased husband might be forced to take the arranged remarriage by the en vy in-laws who wanted to take over the property.In the late Qing, a group of open-minded intellectuals who were influenced by the Western culture, had brought up the idea of gender equity, and defied the traditional chastity. Yet, their focuses were mainly on the campaigns of womens education and the freedom of marriage.4.2 Questionnaire SummaryThe total valid responses were 79, including 33 female undergraduates, 22 male undergraduates, 13 mothers, and 11 fathers. It is a satisfactory rate of response, which reached 56%. More than half of the

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